Category Archives: Rifle

Rifle rifled hunting and target shooting



reaload made in italy

hunting womanThe single bullet and rifled barrel are essential elements for the mountain big game because the real hunt works only with a smart and controlled selection of game. Between weapon and prey creates a sort of addiction, where each game species should influence the choice of the rifle, both in relation to the scope, the deadliness of the caliber, the accuracy, the system to repeat the stroke, weight, and not for the last the pointing scopes.

Not always, however, the choice of the rifle admits a unique solution, in fact sometimes the hunter has a certain freedom of decision, when faces with forms of hunting that can be charged with satisfaction with weapons of different kinds. The hunter, in this case, is not bound by technicalities, but comes in a subjective criterion of evaluation, given by the individual experience of hunting, by the personal choice and by the way he approaches the game. The rifled weapon is always been preferred in the alpine hunts, it has very long range, great precision, big deadliness and shot quite tense determined by the rotational motion that is stamped by the rifling of the barrel. The parallel express or the superposed, the compounds formed by a variation of “combination” and the single barrels or kipplauf  belong all to the group of tilting rifled weapons.

rifle hunting mountain

The latter has a single shot and it is especially suitable for high mountain hunts because of the lightness and precision. In some models it is equipped with double trigger or stencher to lighten the shot and always with scope with interlocking mountings. Generally the gauge chambered in kipplauf is not very powerful, but the weapon, light, disassembled or folded, can easily be transported in big backpack of alpine hunters, including optics. The single barrel is used by a small elite of enthusiasts, in approach hunting or fire position hunting to chamois and deer. To have a single shot does not constitute a disadvantage as you might imagine, because in these hunting activities there is a need for the rapid repetition of the shot.

Express rifles of medium and small gauge are not generally used in the mountains because more suited to short shots,  extremely rare in these environments; the combined rifles, generally with two barrels, one smooth and the other rifled, can give the advantage of being used for game of a different nature and size, to shoot both a ptarmigan that to a chamois.  They are chambered in different gauges for the rifled barrel as regards the rifled barrel and with 20 or with 16 for smooth barrel. The rifles belong to rifled shotgun with single barrel, not swinging; also these are used particularly in hunts that require precision shots such as mountain hunts.

hunting mountain rifle

They usually have simple manual repetition; they are divided into three categories, for the pump system, at lever and with slipping bolt action. The latter, by tradition and precision, is the system most widely preferred by mountain hunters in Europe. The most advanced and efficient design of the entire category of revolving action is the “Mauser system” in 1898. The action type Mauser has a cylindrical shape formed by the machining processing of a special steel bar.

The action is hollow, because inside are housed the main spring and the firing pin with exterior handle, curved downwards and connected to the action; it acts as a lever allowing the rotation of 90° and the sliding action.

Other systems of repetition, both ancient and modern, realize the action closure in a very different way from that of the Mauser, through a different number of fins, or with crampons of different shape and placed in the rear instead of in the head of the action, resulting in the closure and fitting back in the back guide ring of the castle. All they have a very simple and robust mechanism, they are resistant to oxidation, do not fear the abuse and they work in all environmental conditions. The Mauser system is very versatile and can be used in many gauges and do not know the danger jams. The reliability, the precision, the predisposition to be mounted and the flat trajectory also at long range make the Mauser system suitable for shots longer than 200-250 meters, very frequent in mountain.

Teresa Renda

wild boar hunti autoloadig carbine Benelli


shothunt, ear protection

Teresa Renda woman hunterThe semi-automatic rifle is widespread among our hunters of ungulates; they appreciate the quick reset cycle and also the good availability of shots. It’s slowly replacing the smooth-bore weapons for wild boar.

Apart from the higher accuracy, in shooting the rifled barrel weapon has many advantages against the smooth bore.

The high speed of the rifled barrel weapon projectile into the prey produces serious injuries that prevent them from escaping. The semi-automatic rifle has the advantage of a rapid repetition of the shot, a very useful characteristic during the ungulates hunting battue, due to the short time in which the prey remains visible among the vegetation. The semi-automatic rifles are also called “autoload”, automatic loading, with the exception of the automatic repetition of the shot.

Almost all of these rifles have a mechanism for removal of gas. Some of them look like military automatic rifles (often they are the derivation), where, however, the number of shots was reduced and the burst eliminated. Only the semi-automatic rifles ga. 22 with rimfire are equipped with a closure to ground due to the low power gauge.

carbine. hunting. wild boar, rifled

These weapons have a great difficulty to take in very powerful gauges, both for the excessive length of the cartridge case, and for necessity of absorbing and amortizing the violent recoil. The mechanical structure and the mechanism appear to be almost identical to that of semi-automatic. The cartridge tank is generally formed from a magazine of a detachable type, giving a fast loading using a simple spare magazine.

The semi-automatic rifles have a removable magazine supply, placed on tilting or removable support. The charger can have up to 4 cartridges in standard gauges, or up to 3 in magnum gauges. The breech has moveable head with crampons; they get a stable connection with the breech of the barrel. The mechanical parts of those rifles are made of a good steel, in chrome-nickel ones which are located at the points of greatest wear or exposed to very bad gas. They are well-groomed in details, built with quality materials, safe and precise during the operation.

The semi-automanic of modern production, Bar Browning, Benelli Argo, Winchester SXR, and Remington are also very nice to see.

The operation generally does not present problems and the accuracy of shooting in battue is good.

Wild Boar autoloading carbine, rifled, hunting, Benelli, Browning, Remington, Winchester

Among the rifles produced, there is one that is special: it is the Heckler & Hoch that differs from the others because its mechanism exploits the recoil energy, through a delayed opening of the breech, braked by metal cylinders sliding on inclined planes. It has a rib rifling of the barrel obtained by a polygonal puncture of the tube, its mechanics are very accurate, the materials and the operation are good. Only the recoil is often more sensitive than that of the gas rifle.

Teresa Renda

stock, forend, shotgun

express, hunting rifle


stock, forend, shotgun

Teresa Renda woman hunterSuitable for killing prey quickly and accurately, without spoiling by excess power, without causing injury and suffering to the game because of lack of damaging capacity, these rifles are the excellence for medium and large game hunting. The choice of the right weapon is not only a requirement of hunting, but an element based on serious scientific evaluations.

The Express was created to replace the larger-caliber rifles, muzzle-loading or breech, with which the hunters of the last century faced dangerous game, firing heavy lead shot propelled by huge doses of black powder. More manageable and lethal weapons were necessary. These types of two-barrels rifles are now manufactured by many companies, in powerful gauges reserved for bigger game and in medium gauges used mainly in some European or American hunts.

The price is usually high because the process requires a large amount of highly skilled labor. The express is used to hunt large dangerous animals, in short and medium distance ranges, because it allows instant repeat firing, it doesn’t jam, and its mechanics hardly ever fail.

rifle, express, gun. hunting

Changing the type of cartridge or changing slightly the firing range, the Express’ accuracy can be harmed. It is capable of chambering all gauges, from small .22 rimfire ignition to the 700 Nitro Express, making it suitable for hunting any species of animal. It can have adjacent or overlapping barrels, short batteries ANSON type or long battery mounted on side plates, normal or automatic ejectors, one or two triggers.


hunting, rifle, gun, express

It is a type of rifle that can not allow for mediocrity of execution and requires an accurate adjustment when shooting. The side by side barrels express are made also with short batteries Anson & Deeley type, but more often with batteries Holland & Holland with double bar safety and dual closure Purdey almost always helped in this task by a third lock type round plug Greener, or an head doll Westley Richards. The third closure is almost essential in high gauge express to resist the frightening stresses of firing powerful cartridges. The superposed express by its nature is much more accurate, and also requires a more easy adjustment when shooting because it doesn’t have lateral deviations of the barrels to correct, it is not subject to bending of the barrels downwards, in particular in bigger power gauges.

It is almost always more robust because of the “U” shape of the receiver that hugs the barrels and that allows coaxial symmetric closures.

Teresa Renda

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

hunting, rifled, gauge, shooting, hunting


stock, forend, shotgun

expert hunter, rifle

With the emergence of the rifled barrel it is increasingly important to have clear concepts that should guide the hunter to the choice of gauge. This is necessary also to avoid taking simply the weapon identified by the seller; we have to instead make an informed choice with his advice.

The choice of gauge, at the same energy transported, should tend towards the smaller gauge, not so “bad” for the shoulder, but that preserves at the same time the good qualities of precision and is chambered from a large number of manufacturers to find the right weapon and a wide availability of ammunition.

gauge, caliber

But even with these concepts it is necessary to make careful assessments: shot too light, although very fast, may find difficulty in killing stubborn game, exploding at the first contact with the tissues and causing only superficial wounds. This in alternative to shot with hard point that, if not meeting bones, pierces the soft tissues being unable to bring to bear on the game the right amount of useful energy to kill, a basic criterion for the hunt.

The hunting literature lists with certain gauges of historical reliability if used in their range of rational use in terms of shooting distances. The list is extensive but we can recal the 7×57 Mauser, the 7×64, the 5,6×57, the 30-30 W, the 30.06, the W 270, the W 308, the 22-250 and the powerful 300 H & H and 357 H & H.

But obviously the choice of gauge is also in function of the type of weapon that you are going to use. The logic of modern hunting with rifled barrel goes toward the specialization of the weapon and as for our game the maximum limit to be taken into consideration is the 30.06, being good for a big lone male wild boar. For other game, such as fallow deer and roe deer, we can consider it more than enough. But the concept is still controversial and hotly-debated among hunters and there are two well-defined schools of thought: one that wants to privilege the powerful gauge to avoid loss of the animal, and the other that focuses on the need to hit the game on the vital point though it’s small so favors small and fast gauges.

gauge, caliber, rifled, shooting

Passing by hunters to experts in ballistics applied to hunting, their advice is to choose the gauge as small as possible in relation to the game, able to carry enough energy on the game for a clean kill in a range that can reach 270-330 yd. This assessment has a security exception if you hunt dangerous animals (if you really want to go to Africa) for which an excess of energy is useful to the security of the hunter.

There are also some logical criteria that you should consider in choosing the gauge relating the habitual environment of hunting:

a) mountain hunting or in open spaces: in this case the logic is to opt for a fast gauge with light shot;

b) hunting in woodland: here quick, light gauges are not to be considered suitable and the best choice for gauges with heavy shot;

c) hunting in different grounds; the case is not specialized and the advice is to opt for an intermediate gauge but it should be able to take in shot with a good range of weights to cover all needs.

An assessment that leads to the small or fast gauge in the mountains there is the result of a factor, the angle of the site. Using in those places fast shot in straight trajectory will help us enormously in the calculation of the angle at which to set the final aim.

A final element of assessment, which makes someone happy and others unhappy, is the combination gun-ammunition. Not all the ammunition have the same in compliance with different weapons; tolerances in camerature set by the manufacturer, the choice of materials for the barrels and their elasticity (there are many types of steel with very different elasticity) may give different results at the shooting. In this case for a hunter the best way to evaluate is test his rifle with ammunition up to define the most suitable ammunition to interface with it.

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

shooting, trajectory


shothunt, ear protection

expert hunter, rifleOnce the bullet has left the barrel, its trajectory is not straight; it starts a descending parable that leads it inexorably to the ground. There are many factors that determine its fall down; the most relevant ones are the gauge, the force of gravity. the weight of the projectile, the initial speed, the air resistance.  It’s easy to understand the effects of the two external factors to the phenomenon ballistic, gravity and air resistance: as for any body suspended in the air, the force of gravity tends to draw it down, while in the case of air resistance it realizes the only effect of reducing the velocity of motion of the projectile. There is also another factor typical of the atmosphere: the “wave resistance”. It consists in the compression of air in front of the projectile when it travels nearby the speed of sound and opposes further resistance.

shooting, rifled

The first thing to point out in the shot with a rifle, for sport or hunting, is that the sights are not on the same level with the barrel; the value is variable from 30 to 50 mm for the metallic sights until 60-80 mm of scope. It ‘important to know this distance in order to determine the zero point (ie projectile on the center of the target) of the various ammunition. Here are helpful the ballistic tables, but these indicate the average for each cartridge, suitable for all situations, but for the absolute accuracy, starting from these, it is necessary for the hunter or shooter to calcolate them everytime. In this case we have to remember that even for a single gauge there are many variants on the zero point because of the weight of the projectile and the type of charge.

The second element known for all is that while the line of sight is a straight line, the trajectory of the projectile is not, being as a parable which, for a large part of its stroke, is above the line of sight and then descends below. For accuracy, in its travel the projectile meets twice the line of sight: a first time when intersects it to pass above and a second time when crosses it to go toward the ground (zero point). Therefore, calibrating a weapon for example at 200 meters, the bullet, exiting the barrel, will be below the line of sight, then, in its central part, it will have risen above and then it will meet it in the 200 and then it will continue to descend. So if with a weapon perfectly calibrated to 200 meters I need to shoot at a target a hundred yards, I will have seek to under the center of the target by a distance of a few centimeters indicated by the ballistic tables.

Linked to descending part of the parable there is concept of coverage. This is the total space between the exit of the projectile from the barrel and the point where it touches the ground (reasoning on an hypothetical area completely horizontal). The maximum range (also 1.9-2.3 mi) is achieved with a weapon inclined by 45 ° (in the figure is given from the sum of the distances D1 + D2 + D3). Remaining within the hunting another element is more interesting: the useful coverage. This is the maximum distance within is possible to kill cleanly the game. Here the limit is reached between 320 to 430 yards fast gauge, but we have to advise to reduce it as much since at those distances perfectly is problematic to locate the point where to aim or other factors, not easily valuable, may come into as the crosswind.

huntin, rifled, ammunition

In its advancement in the trajectory the projectile meets the resistance of the air that has variable effect depending on its form. In this case we have to evaluate the sectional density of the projectile and its ballistic coefficient.

The sectional density is obtainable by a complex formula: division of shot weight by its diameter. At the same weight, a shot with a smaller diameter will have more ability to penetrate the air resistance. The greater the number of sectional density, the greater will be the penetration capacity of the air by the projectile.

The ballistic coefficient is obtained with another mathematical formula where the value previously obtained (sectional density) is divided by a coefficient of the form which varies for each type of shot. Also in this case the greater will be the result of the division more effective will be the air penetration of the shot. This is because the projectile, in its trajectory, will have a longer trajectory and a more tense, yielding less energy in the parable and then keeping it for the impact on the target on which comes with greater accuracy.

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

ammunition, hunting, rifled, shooting


stock, forend, shotgun

expert, hunter, rifle, ammunitionThe age in which was a great boost the development of modern ammunition for weapons for hunting and shooting rifled identifies the last two decades of the 1800s was the era in which it began to have the availability of smokeless powders, alternatively black which until then had been the only possible propellant in firearms.

The appearance of smokeless powder bore arms manufacturers to pursue the path considered easier, ie the conversion of weapons for hunting and target shooting, born progettualmente for black powder.

But they were pioneering years to the cartridge, because, despite having established the breech, the muzzle-loading yet absorbed the majority of the market and only in regard to the breech coexisted at least 3 systems: a central percussion, spiked and rimfire. The second type was soon abandoned, as the undisputed realm of percussion center, came alongside, coming up to the present day, the rimfire, always limited to small sizes and limited power. All designers, scientists and inventors who wrestled on the study and the patenting of new cartridges, especially hunting, always kept in mind, that the realization of any hunting ammunition, had to meet two basic features: the shooting accuracy and a good stopping power, the latter being understood as the ability of the projectile to “stop the wild.”

ammunition, rifled, hunting, shooting

But in hunting weapons, “stop target” meant very different from military weapons, in the same period in rapid evolution. In the latter, the stopping power is the capacity of ammunition to knock out an opponent, depriving him of his ability to harm: this other humanitarian aspects, namely to cause him the least possible damage was associated with the fact that a wounded soldier goes relief and more are injured, more “personal health military” will be used in the armies, to the detriment of the staff of the infantry.

There was also to be considered that the difficulties of designing a good cartridge military, are limited to the target “human”, whose body mass and therefore weight are included in a rather narrow range (140 -308 lb). But when you pass by weapons military weapons for hunting in concepts are quite different.

In this case stopping power means if possible to kill on the spot, or in any case inflict such wounds to immobilize the prey, preventing the escape or the reaction. Moreover, in contrast to those military cartridges for hunting, compared with wild range of physical characteristics quite dissimilar, as are very different resistances to blow. The range is very large since the rifled weapon is used on wild ranging from marmot elephant, and as is obvious, it is impossible to think provide a cartridge adapted to both.

rifled, ammunition, shooting, hunting

The stopping power is then physical concept, function of many variables, among which the main one is the energy possessed by the projectile at impact which is given by the difference between the kinetic energy in the launch point (muzzle) and the energy lost during the trip.

Luca Naticchi

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

effebi, italian firearm, shotgun


For the gauge 16 there is a different matter: in the wake of the strong impulse given to the return of this gauge on the territory by  the Italian Club Gauge 16, the Effebi has implemented a specific model, the “Beta″, particularly  tidy and without a rib for improved vibration of the barrel and spherical viewfinder old style.

stock, forend, shotgun

Riccardo Ceccarelli, hunterEffebi is a factory in the industrial area of Concesio, gateway to the Valtrompia where the weapon-making wisdom is in its home. Established many years ago by Dr..Franco Beretta, already from the first steps of the activity it has always distinguished itself in the continuous search for ballistic solutions useful to hunters. The Val Trompia, as well as being the home of sporting and hunting weapons, it is also a place where hunters there have always been in great quantity: and therefore it is the ideal place to take from them a rich set of information about the needs that arise in hunting. And here in Effebi brilliant minds and make produce rifles that have only one prerogative: the satisfaction of the hunter. Yes, because in Effebi they are “innovators by tradition”.

effebi, single barrel, side by side, hunting, shotgun

So if you pass by here, you will find them intent on developing and testing more than to produce in large quantities. In the company Dr. Franco is joined by his son Fabio, a skilled interpreter, in a modern key,  of the company philosophy and superfine manager that supports always with fantasy the hunter and his quest of hunting satisfaction.

Keen observer and curious technical and commercial experimenter, since I had the pleasure of his acquaintance, I saw him engage with extraordinary continuity and tenacity in finding solutions for both shotguns and rifles, hardly traceable in the catalogs of other companies. Specialist of small gauges for company tradition, Fabio passes from these to the higher gauges and the rifles with extraordinary ease, always managing to produce consistently hunting weapons that often ahead of their time and give the hunter the ideal solution for each hunt.

In his catalog is difficult to find “a normal weapon”, because that – as he himself says – everyone has one – while the same is rich in solutions for specific variants hunting that every hunter faces and on which may be fine any shotgun, but the one born to the particular need is certainly better. The  philosophy that Fabio has brought in his company is that the shotgun was born for one purpose: to hunt, facing the cold and water, scorching heat and shock. Hence the need to not enrich it with extreme aesthetic solutions (although asking it you’ll surely be content with extreme satisfaction), but to give it “what it takes” to ensure efficiency, strength and durability, the three basic requirements for a weapon that in the years will provide pleasure to the hunter and not to give him problems or to highlight limitations.

But let’s get to the weapons I would say “special”, starting from the shotgun.

Among the series of classic Effebi shotguns, one stands out from the reeds with very short barrels.

shotgun, side by side, huntnig, omega

It’s the Queen Omega designed and manufactured for woodcock hunting that, because of the environment in which pitfall, creates many problems for our game bag. Here the hunting problems of the queen of the wood find their worthy solution and the shotgun is particularly handy with his short barrels that have a particularly large chokes combinable successfully with dispersants cartridges on the market to provide a particularly large and well distributed pattern. It’s made in 12 gauge to provide the highest volume of fire and has low weight; it is the ideal answer for those walk for steep slopes for the entire day, searching the woodcook.

side-by side, hunting, shotgun, single barrel

But the production of shotguns Effebi reserve another amazing gem. It’s a shotgun for fire position hunting that has the two barrels slightly divergent able to fire simultaneously. Even in this case the company has researched the most appropriate solution for those who see get thrown on a group of birds and know thet can to hit just one. This is no longer true, to the satisfaction of the palate of the hunter of migratory birds. The shotgun provides “8” pattern for the partial overlap of the two. The absolute success for the small migratory birds hunting.

In the catalog there’s also a shotgun slug (Omega Slug) expressly created for hunting wild boar in gauge 12 and 20 with generous organs of sight with notch on the raised thickness of sighting bar.

These are flanked by the weapons in small gauge 28 and .410 (Master Slim) who have received in recent years a great success.

effebi, single barrell, hunting, shotgun

Other specialist weapons are shown in the catalog Effebi. In particular, they have an interpretation the classic “single smooth barrel” In Effebi this weapon, considered by many a lower weapon, assumes a rank distinctly different. It is produced not only in the gauges considered classics for such a weapon 24, 28, and 8 .410 gauges Flobert but also in 12, 16 and 20 following the commercial success in South America where this type of weapon is particularly required to hunt the hare and the local partridge with long barrels and full chokes.

The single barrel “Beta” is produced with the variation of the key opening positioned or above the receiver or alternatively in the lower part as in the classic tradition of Italic single barrel, with or without a ventilated barrel rib. It has a stock with a generous pistol grip and equally generous is the forend for a firm grip of the weak hand, which is necessary when you switch from the .410 version to charges 16 or 12.

For the 16 is a different matter: in the wake of the strong impulse given to the return of this gauge on the territory of the Italian Club active Gauge 16, the Effebi has implemented a specific model, the “Beta Effebi single barrel 16 gauge hunting beta Classic old Style 16″, particolrmente groomed and without a rib for improved vibration of the rod and spherical viewfinder old style.

It’s a low cost shotgun (this year for use in a Long Test the founder of the Club) that sedicisti will certainly not escape.

 But with the Beta they have not finished to surprise at all. Its versions in gauge .410 and 8 Flobert (Beta 110) are equipped with a interchangeable choke with an extension of 40 cm which brings the barrel from 70 to 110 cm, so the hunter has the opportunity to have a small gauge of extraordinary scope and with a noise impact limited, very useful when you don’t want to worry the game.

Specialists in folding arms, Effebi did not forget to impress even in terms of supperposed. There are two classic weapons in the company’s production: the folding supperposed s proposed in gauges .410 and 28. There is also another superposed, a non-selective single trigger in .410 gauge, fully folding and made ​​of cylindrical barrels of short length (only 56 cm), designed to meet two kinds of users: the woodcook’s hunters suited to action sports and alternatively the wild bora’s hunters that very often shoot dry shots even in small gauge to free the dogs from the risk of wild boar stopped in the bushes.

There are also an entire range of  folding over and under  and the excellent Black Diamond, over and under  of unique elegance, available in 28 gauge and .410 in hunting and sporting version.

over and under, shotgun, hunting, shooting, compak sporting

Even in the field of rifles, Effebi not let slip the opportunity to propose with extreme originality its interpretation of the hunting rifle. The Terminator is what we can call “Kipplauf Italian”; it’s a weapon completely folding over itself, it has a slide weaver for mounting optics, the barrels of high quality steel and wood in walnut of a high degree with stock with cheekpiece and ending with a black rubber recoil pad.

The Terminator is produced in many different gauges and is oriented to selection hunters that operate such hunting in difficult terrain such as the Alps or the Apennines. Here the rifle Effebi gives the best demonstration of herself for the weight and the way in which it can be folded.

hunting, kipplauf, effebi, rifle

I conclude this brief excursus on Effebi with a clarification; as you may have noticed I have not talked about traditional shotguns or semi-automatic that although the company has a catalog. I spoke of specificity, of ideas generated from a lot of speaks made ​​between the owners of the company and the hunters.

And we discussed the company’s catalog as a cylinder from which Franco and Fabio, with extraordinary continuity, manage to extract solutions designed exclusively for the satisfaction of our incurable followers of Diana.

 Riccardo Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor



stock, forend, shotgun


The shot with a firearm gives at the same a violent backward movement which, in the case of long gun resting on the shoulder of the shooter, submit him to a violent blow, surely annoying but that can also be harmful if it isn’t within certain limits . But what happens in reality?

The explosion of gunpowder tends to separate the projectile from the weapon; in other words, it latter pushes the shot on the one hand and the gun in the opposite direction.

Speaking of a purely physical phenomenon is also possible to say that both elements will move in the their direction for an area that is inversely proportional to their mass. So ironically, if the rifle had not stopped, in his retrograde movement, from the shoulder of the shooter it would have a movement of 100 times less than that of the projectile (evaluation performed on a standard data, which provides that the gun weights 100 times more than the charge that launches. Example: rifle weight 3,200 gr and weight launched shot 32 gr).

recoil shotgun, hunting, shooting

The recoil shotgun 

The sensation that produces the recoil on the shooter is obviously a function of the amount of kinetic energy produced in the explosion but also of the weight of the shotgun. It’s a well-known fact that firing the same ammunition by two shotguns different for weight the recoil felt is different and clearly lower for the gun that weights less.

The living force of the recoil is influenced by many factors: the weight of the shotgun, the weight of the shot charge (or projectile) including the material of wad and the burning rate of the powder. It is, however, independent of the value of the maximum pressure.

Shooters with a medium build resent a recoil of 4 kgm, factor that will make them lose their concentration worsening the quality of the shot.

Recoils with power about 4.5 kgm can be supported well by important build shooters as long as they engage hunts where they shoot rarely.

During hunts where the hunters tend to shoot with good frequency, such as those in bars, in the English hunts or to the small migratory, the recoil becomes an important factor that can affect the hunting results.

The speed of the recoil, a direct function of the burning rate of the gunpowder, is measured with a special instrument called “velocimeter”; in this the gun is placed on a horizontal axis capable of measuring, on a graduated rod, the weapon retrograde displacement during the shot. This instrument was used in the past, particularly in British plants for the production of ammunition.

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

side by side, external hammers


stock, forend, shotgun

Teresa Renda woman hunterOf side by side with external hammers there are two defined types, those spring forward and the spring back. In the first case the creator Stanton was at that Wolverhmapton of the nineteenth century began to develop sagomandole as we know them today, and the anchored to a generous nut that stood for strength.

These are easily recognizable even from a cursory external vision for the arrangement of the pins protruding behind the dog that the folder form an isosceles triangle with the vertex downward.   The toggle spring forward is considered to be less robust than in spring forth; the first fact requires a seat in the receiver for the housing of springs so as to make it theoretically less compact.   In the case of the spring back the whole is more compact because for this it is necessary to derive only one space in the receiver minimum for the housing of the plate.

side by side, external hammers, sgotgun, hunting, shooting

Sometimes, if not particularly expert eye, the visual difference between spring forward and spring back may not be easy to locate. This is because in many hunting shotguns with external hammers and spring back, the plate is drawn as if it were spring forward (called “false”) and this is done for what it is intended to be a useless aesthetic convex, whereas the spring is back.   Between the two, the greater sweetness in the armament of the dog is the prerogative of the spring forth; this is because the spring has a different length, but also for the provision of dell’acciarino same.   Except in terms of sweetness and loading force is a spring back in those batteries that develop a tinderbox particularly long and identified by a very elongated back plate. Present exclusively in very fine hunting guns. It is in these batteries is found the sweetness of loading springs forward.

 side by side, external hammers, sgotgun, hunting, shooting

All pistols shotguns with external hammers have a safety mechanism called the “bounce” that few hunters know but that can be analyzed by following this procedure: press the trigger is released the dog which consequently takes to strike the firing pin. The dog does not stop at the touch of the striker briefly but continues its run until the same is not stopped by the screw codpiece.

In this phase of overcoming the position which will then rest (hammer down) makes the tooth bounce calls into partially tension the mainspring, which is ridistende with immediacy. When the dog is at rest there is no possibility that the same is in contact with the firing pin by which remains separate for 1-2 millimeters providing absolute safety the weapon.

Teresa Renda

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor



stock, forend, shotgun

hunting expertThe shotgun of each hunter and / or shooter typically undergoes, in both the metal part that in that wood, abrasions and scratches, or simply loss of tone of color due to various factors including, in the first place, time. In addition to this, of course, also the wear and humidity affect, the latter phenomenon due to the use of the weapon in the cold winter days of hunting. We will go, then, to explore how to intervene manually on the wooden parts to bring them back in good condition, acting both on the color (giving it greater vitality and shine) on the structure, trying, with targeted interventions, to eliminate those small incisions that do not limit the functionality of the weapon, but make it less pleasant, especially in the eyes of those who are caring particularly those finishes.

What are the characteristics that the wood, an essential component of the weapon, must possess? Lightness, strength, ability to not distort over time as a result of shots fired and the recoil generated and malleability, id est the ability to be worked with ease in order to create different types of stocks and the possibility to be carved with ease for the creation of drawings that do not tend to blur with the passage of time.

For this invoice are used different types of wood suitable for the purpose.

No wood, however, is as valid as it is the “nut”, already introduced in the production of the first firearms.

It is the only type of wood, between those used, which encapsulates all the key characteristics mentioned above. The more valuable walnut is the French although, of course, can come from other countries, providing the same excellent features. The greatest value of the walnut is represented by its aspect that, following the sizing of the trunk, comes with veining, homogeneous color, porous, robust and lightweight. Also the Italian walnut is not to be despised, although not widely used for the realization of stocks for shotgun.

Only for particular types of weapons we use the “Circassian walnut” from Russia and that, in addition to beautiful grain, has beautiful reflexes, even in not excellent light; its use is, however, limited because it has high costs for feedstock and demands a more accurate processing compared to the classic walnut. Other wood used is beech, albeit of lower quality than the nut for increased heaviness and the veins usually quite faded. The beech, although not indicated for a shotgun of great value or collector, has been widely used in the production of war weapon as Springfleld.


Also several hundreds of thousands of Kalashnikov, currently ubiquitous in the most “hot” areas in the world, have the stock in beech.

Very rarely are also used the maple and the monaco, but the guns with these stock are present only in some regions of Asia.

The restoration of shotgun

The work of cleaning and finishing of wood is a thing for professionals; key is to avoid performing these functions unless you are more than expert, in order not to “spoil” in a definitive way, or nearly, the beauty of the weapon. So you can do the work by yourself only if you have the necessary experience, even if it is always advisable to consult “professional expert” who with competence, passion and use of suitable products, will be able to bring the weapon to an aspect like new.

The transactions listed below to restore the wood are generally carried out only by a professional restorer. This person is a “wood artist” who well knows the importance of the use of exclusive materials and techniques coincident at the time of realization of the gun to be restored.

The only true serious restoration problem is, however, another; the gunsmith is unfortunately an endangered professional, or nearly so, since very few people decide to go down this road craft, carrying on the weapon-making culture of previous generations. The work of the gunsmith may, however, become a profession in all respects, which requires great talent and desire to learn and that, while often lack an adequate financial reward, certainly knows how to be very rewarding. The restoration of the wooden part takes place in a single step? Absolutely no, never! It should also be noted that there is intervention and intervention; one thing is just to bring the weapon bright, and another to take action to remove imperfections, rearrange checkerings…

shotgun hunting

Let us, therefore, to do some clarity on the various steps in the process:

  • Separation of the metal parts from the wooden ones;
  • Removing the previous impregnationof oil with which they were treated the same. This is done with the dive of these in boiling water containing mild soap, subsequent rubbing with brush (not in a steel or with teeth too rigid) in order to remove the oil which emerges from the timber, left for time in boiling water. This operation is carried out several times in order to bring to the surface residues of oil and to can remove them.

Became necessary to repeat the transaction until “micro-droplets of oil” no more will surface;

  • Stripping carried throughaccurate drawing with the brush of a few coats of paint stripper typically made up of a mixture of caustic soda and acetone; its corrosive power melts the paint without going to affect the structure of the wood. To complete the transaction, then you must make use a spatula in order to remove the paint; it should be used with extreme lightness to prevent damaging the wood.

With these procedures shows the raw wooden weapon and it is now that the work superfine begins, ie the actual restoration.

It takes place through the following steps:

  • Elimination of abrasions and bruisesthat are removed by rubbing very gently with sandpaper with a very subtle “grain”. To remove very tiny chips a simple swab is applied to a piece of wood with he size of a match that is rotated over the treated area to remove the whole;
  •  Elimination of holes and / or splinters of wood: these ruined parts are treated with a grinder with a circle of working in soft felt, impregnated with abrasive paste. This treatment leads to an increase of the surface spalling or section of the forum which is, however, compensated by the application of pastes suitable to plug the hole and take the natural line of the wood by sanding later. For this purpose are generally used various types of resins, among which the most suitable is that used for the vessels and, therefore, for marine use. Compared to all other resins, this has the advantage of being more flexible, easier to apply, to take immediately the required shape with a simple and light sanding and be particularly predisposed to absorb the most of the color that will be subsequently applied without leaving streaks or no shade;
  • • Renew the checkering: the checkering, really, often doesn’t ruins in, but his line and depth tend to decrease fat accumulation due to contact with the hands, as well as moisture and dirt. Became enough then to switch several times (2-3 times) a particular type of solvent in wide commercial use and available in many armories, with the aid of a simple brush to remove any debris. After the first pass, you will notice a pronounced difference than before.
  • New water protection of wood: this is the phase that precedes the final painting. In this phase sealing materials are laid on the wood, generally derived from chemical substances and however readily available, which allow us to limit the new wear caused by moisture in the case of subsequent use of the weapon for hunting purposes or for target shooting. The master restorers generally stretch 2-3 coats of waterproofing, letting between them the time required for the timber is soaked in the substance.
  • Painting: is the penultimate stage of the cycle of restoration, one that allows the weapon to return to their natural color, reviving it in the tone and enhancing the wood grain. At this stage it is absolutely not necessary to use the exact same shade of color that the wood had previously; you can, in fact, use a different shade, better if a little darker to give greater prominence to the wood itself, highlighting the grain and making them much more pleasing to the eye for ancient. You can also create mixtures with more colors, but to do this you have to be a true master because if the color that you give is not of high quality and pleasantness you risk damaging irreparably or almost the beauty of the shotgun, sometimes of high honor and owned by a collector.

Before making the painting is very important to “treat the wood with sealants’, available from specialist companies; they allow you to close all the “pores” that open into the wood as a result of the previous sanding and cleaning. In fact, these holes, if opened, through the chemical process of “osmosis” would tend to absorb moisture giving air contained in them outwards, resulting in irreparable bulge, if not breaking, of the wooden parts a short time after the painting.

• Polishing: it is the last stage, after which you will present to our eyes as a new weapon in its aesthetics. This is done by drawing up a few hands of “flaxseed oil” (possibly adjusted), letting it dry well between coats to allow for good absorption.

Also cottonseed oil and / or sesame seeds can be used as an alternative, but flax oil is best the long better than the others because it tends to “oxidize” when in contact with air, forming a transparent and elastic film that is advisable for many types of shotguns, not only by collectors but also fo hunting shotguns or for war weapons.

The restoration of the shotgun provides, generally, that all parties are renew and, therefore, not only the wooden ones but also mechanical ones, such as firing mechanisms, the castle and the barrel, but this topic we will discuss in the following .

For now, if you dare, have a “good job” !!

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor