Category Archives: Ammunition

Ammunition for rifle ad carbine

closed cartidge crimping round and star

THE CARTRIDGE CLOSING: ROUND OR STAR?

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hunting womanIn the rifled guns, the cartridge case of the cartridge is closed at the apex by the bullet, which engages the neck and is stopped in the seat by means of crimping. The case of shot cartridges causes the fractionation of the charge in a column of small independent projectiles, it requires instead of being clogged at the apex by a sealing disc and a rim of stationary, or by a folding towards the center, of the same tube of cartridge case.

crimping star cartidges

The first shutter system is called “round crimp“, instead the second, the most modern, is called “star crimp.” The two systems make cartridge autonomous and transportable because they maintain firmly the structure of the internal components, protecting them from moisture of the environment. The crimp is practiced through a coil, placed in rapid rotation by a manual operation hemmer machine or by an electric motor with a low number of revolutions.

The profile of the coil varies according to the shape of the rim, the speed of rotation and the type of material that forms the tube of used casings (cardboard or plastic). The edging round with section with two folding edges rounded suits lively powders because, of equal height, has a lower resistance than the other types, while the hemming square section, where there are the corners, was abandoned because generates pressures too high and is more difficult to perform.

round crimping cartridges ammunition

In casings cardboard is practiced on a round edge on 5-7 mm of the tube, adjusting this height with respect to the resistance of the cardboard, to the weight of the shot charge, the type of wad and the liveliness of the powder. In the cartridge plastic cases the rim height ranges 6-8 mm because this material has a lower resistance at the performance being more malleable at high temperatures of firing. Too low crimps are not recommended because, offering little resistance, cause a slow and incomplete combustion of the powder with the formation of dangerous “fires long.” Regarding the star crimp, is decidedly more modern compared round crimp.

I was produced by practicing at the top of the tube 6-8 longitudinal folds, using a special coil called “engraver” (6 folds is the traditional European close, 8 folds is typically American). Following a second coil crushes these folds towards the center, in contact with the column of the shot, practicing by rotating a circular outer edge, similar to the round crimp. The height of the outer circular edge adjusts the resistance to the carrying out of the closure on the carton and on the plastic, even if the two materials require a different form of engraver and of coil crimp. A regular star crimp closure must occupy approximately 11-12 mm in free cartridge case; this measure varies according to the thickness and type of material of the tube, the height of the outer circular edge, the shape and the width of the edge section. A lightweight closure can be used to reduce the maximum pressure of the cartridge, while a very tall and narrow closure may partially compensate for a lack of clogging.

The round crimp gives an increased resistance in the phase of initial sbossolamento, but an effort of extracting total minor in comparison of star crimp. With the edge round the charge at the beginning of his movement should exert more pressure to curl the tube, then finds a minimum sliding friction within the cartridge case. With the star crimp, the charge exerts less pressure in the conduct of external light edging, while meets a higher resistance and more continuous stretching the folds of the ripple of the tube, during the passage of the shot column and of the wad.

round and star crimping ammunition

For this reason the star crimp requires a lower dose of powder. The advantage of the star crimp in hunting cartridges is the abolition of the sealing disc, which has eliminated, in part, the famous “empty pattern”; it tends to reduce the dispersion of 5%, because it gets, in the swarm of patter, the “melted “ disposition, facilitating the penetration of the air and thus improving the remaining speed of the lead. In the past, the star crimp gave certain loading problems, employing cartridge cases of poor length, voluminous powder and heavy charges, while today the problem is solved with the use of a cup obturator that allow to reduce to the minimum the height of the column of the wad.

Teresa Renda

wild boar hunti autoloadig carbine Benelli

SEMI-AUTOMATIC RIFLE FOR HUNTING WILD BOAR

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Teresa Renda woman hunterThe semi-automatic rifle is widespread among our hunters of ungulates; they appreciate the quick reset cycle and also the good availability of shots. It’s slowly replacing the smooth-bore weapons for wild boar.

Apart from the higher accuracy, in shooting the rifled barrel weapon has many advantages against the smooth bore.

The high speed of the rifled barrel weapon projectile into the prey produces serious injuries that prevent them from escaping. The semi-automatic rifle has the advantage of a rapid repetition of the shot, a very useful characteristic during the ungulates hunting battue, due to the short time in which the prey remains visible among the vegetation. The semi-automatic rifles are also called “autoload”, automatic loading, with the exception of the automatic repetition of the shot.

Almost all of these rifles have a mechanism for removal of gas. Some of them look like military automatic rifles (often they are the derivation), where, however, the number of shots was reduced and the burst eliminated. Only the semi-automatic rifles ga. 22 with rimfire are equipped with a closure to ground due to the low power gauge.

carbine. hunting. wild boar, rifled

These weapons have a great difficulty to take in very powerful gauges, both for the excessive length of the cartridge case, and for necessity of absorbing and amortizing the violent recoil. The mechanical structure and the mechanism appear to be almost identical to that of semi-automatic. The cartridge tank is generally formed from a magazine of a detachable type, giving a fast loading using a simple spare magazine.

The semi-automatic rifles have a removable magazine supply, placed on tilting or removable support. The charger can have up to 4 cartridges in standard gauges, or up to 3 in magnum gauges. The breech has moveable head with crampons; they get a stable connection with the breech of the barrel. The mechanical parts of those rifles are made of a good steel, in chrome-nickel ones which are located at the points of greatest wear or exposed to very bad gas. They are well-groomed in details, built with quality materials, safe and precise during the operation.

The semi-automanic of modern production, Bar Browning, Benelli Argo, Winchester SXR, and Remington are also very nice to see.

The operation generally does not present problems and the accuracy of shooting in battue is good.

Wild Boar autoloading carbine, rifled, hunting, Benelli, Browning, Remington, Winchester

Among the rifles produced, there is one that is special: it is the Heckler & Hoch that differs from the others because its mechanism exploits the recoil energy, through a delayed opening of the breech, braked by metal cylinders sliding on inclined planes. It has a rib rifling of the barrel obtained by a polygonal puncture of the tube, its mechanics are very accurate, the materials and the operation are good. Only the recoil is often more sensitive than that of the gas rifle.

Teresa Renda

stock, forend, shotgun

hunting, rifled, gauge, shooting, hunting

RIFLED BARREL AND HUNTING: CHOOSE THE GAUGE

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With the emergence of the rifled barrel it is increasingly important to have clear concepts that should guide the hunter to the choice of gauge. This is necessary also to avoid taking simply the weapon identified by the seller; we have to instead make an informed choice with his advice.

The choice of gauge, at the same energy transported, should tend towards the smaller gauge, not so “bad” for the shoulder, but that preserves at the same time the good qualities of precision and is chambered from a large number of manufacturers to find the right weapon and a wide availability of ammunition.

gauge, caliber

But even with these concepts it is necessary to make careful assessments: shot too light, although very fast, may find difficulty in killing stubborn game, exploding at the first contact with the tissues and causing only superficial wounds. This in alternative to shot with hard point that, if not meeting bones, pierces the soft tissues being unable to bring to bear on the game the right amount of useful energy to kill, a basic criterion for the hunt.

The hunting literature lists with certain gauges of historical reliability if used in their range of rational use in terms of shooting distances. The list is extensive but we can recal the 7×57 Mauser, the 7×64, the 5,6×57, the 30-30 W, the 30.06, the W 270, the W 308, the 22-250 and the powerful 300 H & H and 357 H & H.

But obviously the choice of gauge is also in function of the type of weapon that you are going to use. The logic of modern hunting with rifled barrel goes toward the specialization of the weapon and as for our game the maximum limit to be taken into consideration is the 30.06, being good for a big lone male wild boar. For other game, such as fallow deer and roe deer, we can consider it more than enough. But the concept is still controversial and hotly-debated among hunters and there are two well-defined schools of thought: one that wants to privilege the powerful gauge to avoid loss of the animal, and the other that focuses on the need to hit the game on the vital point though it’s small so favors small and fast gauges.

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Passing by hunters to experts in ballistics applied to hunting, their advice is to choose the gauge as small as possible in relation to the game, able to carry enough energy on the game for a clean kill in a range that can reach 270-330 yd. This assessment has a security exception if you hunt dangerous animals (if you really want to go to Africa) for which an excess of energy is useful to the security of the hunter.

There are also some logical criteria that you should consider in choosing the gauge relating the habitual environment of hunting:

a) mountain hunting or in open spaces: in this case the logic is to opt for a fast gauge with light shot;

b) hunting in woodland: here quick, light gauges are not to be considered suitable and the best choice for gauges with heavy shot;

c) hunting in different grounds; the case is not specialized and the advice is to opt for an intermediate gauge but it should be able to take in shot with a good range of weights to cover all needs.

An assessment that leads to the small or fast gauge in the mountains there is the result of a factor, the angle of the site. Using in those places fast shot in straight trajectory will help us enormously in the calculation of the angle at which to set the final aim.

A final element of assessment, which makes someone happy and others unhappy, is the combination gun-ammunition. Not all the ammunition have the same in compliance with different weapons; tolerances in camerature set by the manufacturer, the choice of materials for the barrels and their elasticity (there are many types of steel with very different elasticity) may give different results at the shooting. In this case for a hunter the best way to evaluate is test his rifle with ammunition up to define the most suitable ammunition to interface with it.

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

shooting, trajectory

RIFLED BARREL: FACTORS OF TRAJECTORY

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expert hunter, rifleOnce the bullet has left the barrel, its trajectory is not straight; it starts a descending parable that leads it inexorably to the ground. There are many factors that determine its fall down; the most relevant ones are the gauge, the force of gravity. the weight of the projectile, the initial speed, the air resistance.  It’s easy to understand the effects of the two external factors to the phenomenon ballistic, gravity and air resistance: as for any body suspended in the air, the force of gravity tends to draw it down, while in the case of air resistance it realizes the only effect of reducing the velocity of motion of the projectile. There is also another factor typical of the atmosphere: the “wave resistance”. It consists in the compression of air in front of the projectile when it travels nearby the speed of sound and opposes further resistance.

shooting, rifled

The first thing to point out in the shot with a rifle, for sport or hunting, is that the sights are not on the same level with the barrel; the value is variable from 30 to 50 mm for the metallic sights until 60-80 mm of scope. It ‘important to know this distance in order to determine the zero point (ie projectile on the center of the target) of the various ammunition. Here are helpful the ballistic tables, but these indicate the average for each cartridge, suitable for all situations, but for the absolute accuracy, starting from these, it is necessary for the hunter or shooter to calcolate them everytime. In this case we have to remember that even for a single gauge there are many variants on the zero point because of the weight of the projectile and the type of charge.

The second element known for all is that while the line of sight is a straight line, the trajectory of the projectile is not, being as a parable which, for a large part of its stroke, is above the line of sight and then descends below. For accuracy, in its travel the projectile meets twice the line of sight: a first time when intersects it to pass above and a second time when crosses it to go toward the ground (zero point). Therefore, calibrating a weapon for example at 200 meters, the bullet, exiting the barrel, will be below the line of sight, then, in its central part, it will have risen above and then it will meet it in the 200 and then it will continue to descend. So if with a weapon perfectly calibrated to 200 meters I need to shoot at a target a hundred yards, I will have seek to under the center of the target by a distance of a few centimeters indicated by the ballistic tables.

Linked to descending part of the parable there is concept of coverage. This is the total space between the exit of the projectile from the barrel and the point where it touches the ground (reasoning on an hypothetical area completely horizontal). The maximum range (also 1.9-2.3 mi) is achieved with a weapon inclined by 45 ° (in the figure is given from the sum of the distances D1 + D2 + D3). Remaining within the hunting another element is more interesting: the useful coverage. This is the maximum distance within is possible to kill cleanly the game. Here the limit is reached between 320 to 430 yards fast gauge, but we have to advise to reduce it as much since at those distances perfectly is problematic to locate the point where to aim or other factors, not easily valuable, may come into as the crosswind.

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In its advancement in the trajectory the projectile meets the resistance of the air that has variable effect depending on its form. In this case we have to evaluate the sectional density of the projectile and its ballistic coefficient.

The sectional density is obtainable by a complex formula: division of shot weight by its diameter. At the same weight, a shot with a smaller diameter will have more ability to penetrate the air resistance. The greater the number of sectional density, the greater will be the penetration capacity of the air by the projectile.

The ballistic coefficient is obtained with another mathematical formula where the value previously obtained (sectional density) is divided by a coefficient of the form which varies for each type of shot. Also in this case the greater will be the result of the division more effective will be the air penetration of the shot. This is because the projectile, in its trajectory, will have a longer trajectory and a more tense, yielding less energy in the parable and then keeping it for the impact on the target on which comes with greater accuracy.

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

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THE HUNTING AMMUNITION FOR RIFLED 1° PART

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expert, hunter, rifle, ammunitionThe age in which was a great boost the development of modern ammunition for weapons for hunting and shooting rifled identifies the last two decades of the 1800s was the era in which it began to have the availability of smokeless powders, alternatively black which until then had been the only possible propellant in firearms.

The appearance of smokeless powder bore arms manufacturers to pursue the path considered easier, ie the conversion of weapons for hunting and target shooting, born progettualmente for black powder.

But they were pioneering years to the cartridge, because, despite having established the breech, the muzzle-loading yet absorbed the majority of the market and only in regard to the breech coexisted at least 3 systems: a central percussion, spiked and rimfire. The second type was soon abandoned, as the undisputed realm of percussion center, came alongside, coming up to the present day, the rimfire, always limited to small sizes and limited power. All designers, scientists and inventors who wrestled on the study and the patenting of new cartridges, especially hunting, always kept in mind, that the realization of any hunting ammunition, had to meet two basic features: the shooting accuracy and a good stopping power, the latter being understood as the ability of the projectile to “stop the wild.”

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But in hunting weapons, “stop target” meant very different from military weapons, in the same period in rapid evolution. In the latter, the stopping power is the capacity of ammunition to knock out an opponent, depriving him of his ability to harm: this other humanitarian aspects, namely to cause him the least possible damage was associated with the fact that a wounded soldier goes relief and more are injured, more “personal health military” will be used in the armies, to the detriment of the staff of the infantry.

There was also to be considered that the difficulties of designing a good cartridge military, are limited to the target “human”, whose body mass and therefore weight are included in a rather narrow range (140 -308 lb). But when you pass by weapons military weapons for hunting in concepts are quite different.

In this case stopping power means if possible to kill on the spot, or in any case inflict such wounds to immobilize the prey, preventing the escape or the reaction. Moreover, in contrast to those military cartridges for hunting, compared with wild range of physical characteristics quite dissimilar, as are very different resistances to blow. The range is very large since the rifled weapon is used on wild ranging from marmot elephant, and as is obvious, it is impossible to think provide a cartridge adapted to both.

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The stopping power is then physical concept, function of many variables, among which the main one is the energy possessed by the projectile at impact which is given by the difference between the kinetic energy in the launch point (muzzle) and the energy lost during the trip.

Luca Naticchi

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

ammunition, 308 win

GAUGES: 308 W

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For a long time the concept of efficiency of gauge, for the Italian hunters, resided in the 30-06 gauge and the 308 W gauge has been relegated to the corner because of its case shorter than the previous. But ballistically this is not true . The reasons are manifold.
In the first place we have to consider  the recai; the 308 W at the shoulder is “feeled” very. The energy itself, for equal bulltes, is lower than the 30-06 of about a 10% , factor that allows to chamber the gauge in  lighter  guns also because endowed with a shorter action.

On the other hand it is also known that between the medium gauges, the 308 W is also clearly the most accurate so that is the caliber of choice in precision shooting.

ammunition, rifle, 308 W, shooting, hunting

On the other hand this gauge did a lot of experimentation, being the civil version of the well known military gauge 7,62×51.  It was developed in 1952 by theWinchester Company and was charged with ball powder and it is very similar to its military sister  even if the exercise pressures are greater. It derives from the.300 Savage

The bullets assigned to this gauge have a great swing weight, it starts from 93 grains to reach 200. With the 308 W is absolutely possible to hunt the same game that you hunt with the 30-06. In its category, which includes 7×57, 7.64, 284W, 7 mm-08 and 30-06, the 308 W is one that provides the absolute highest level of precision.

This quality is highlighted with test where at 100 with most of the weapons on the market we can have shot patterns of  5 strokes of 20 mm and, when you use the specific ammunition, you can obtain  shot patterns of 10-12 mm.

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They are extraordinary results for a 7 mm gauge with great power cartridge. Because of its potential, the caliber 308 W is either chambered in bolt action rifles and semi-automatic.

Despite the initial distrust, the 308W has become one of the best sporting ammunition, and it is probably the most versatile and popular among centerfire cartridges.

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The .308 Win doesn’t to realize an excessive wear of the barrel, so they come with confidence to 5,000 shots fired.
Charging is defined quite simple and does not require excessive fussiness by charging it. The wide availability of charge materials certainly facilitates this practice dear to many hunters and shooters.

Luca Naticchi

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor