Tag Archives: Rifled

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SEMI-AUTOMATIC RIFLE FOR HUNTING WILD BOAR

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Teresa Renda woman hunterThe semi-automatic rifle is widespread among our hunters of ungulates; they appreciate the quick reset cycle and also the good availability of shots. It’s slowly replacing the smooth-bore weapons for wild boar.

Apart from the higher accuracy, in shooting the rifled barrel weapon has many advantages against the smooth bore.

The high speed of the rifled barrel weapon projectile into the prey produces serious injuries that prevent them from escaping. The semi-automatic rifle has the advantage of a rapid repetition of the shot, a very useful characteristic during the ungulates hunting battue, due to the short time in which the prey remains visible among the vegetation. The semi-automatic rifles are also called “autoload”, automatic loading, with the exception of the automatic repetition of the shot.

Almost all of these rifles have a mechanism for removal of gas. Some of them look like military automatic rifles (often they are the derivation), where, however, the number of shots was reduced and the burst eliminated. Only the semi-automatic rifles ga. 22 with rimfire are equipped with a closure to ground due to the low power gauge.

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These weapons have a great difficulty to take in very powerful gauges, both for the excessive length of the cartridge case, and for necessity of absorbing and amortizing the violent recoil. The mechanical structure and the mechanism appear to be almost identical to that of semi-automatic. The cartridge tank is generally formed from a magazine of a detachable type, giving a fast loading using a simple spare magazine.

The semi-automatic rifles have a removable magazine supply, placed on tilting or removable support. The charger can have up to 4 cartridges in standard gauges, or up to 3 in magnum gauges. The breech has moveable head with crampons; they get a stable connection with the breech of the barrel. The mechanical parts of those rifles are made of a good steel, in chrome-nickel ones which are located at the points of greatest wear or exposed to very bad gas. They are well-groomed in details, built with quality materials, safe and precise during the operation.

The semi-automanic of modern production, Bar Browning, Benelli Argo, Winchester SXR, and Remington are also very nice to see.

The operation generally does not present problems and the accuracy of shooting in battue is good.

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Among the rifles produced, there is one that is special: it is the Heckler & Hoch that differs from the others because its mechanism exploits the recoil energy, through a delayed opening of the breech, braked by metal cylinders sliding on inclined planes. It has a rib rifling of the barrel obtained by a polygonal puncture of the tube, its mechanics are very accurate, the materials and the operation are good. Only the recoil is often more sensitive than that of the gas rifle.

Teresa Renda

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RIFLED BARREL AND HUNTING: CHOOSE THE GAUGE

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With the emergence of the rifled barrel it is increasingly important to have clear concepts that should guide the hunter to the choice of gauge. This is necessary also to avoid taking simply the weapon identified by the seller; we have to instead make an informed choice with his advice.

The choice of gauge, at the same energy transported, should tend towards the smaller gauge, not so “bad” for the shoulder, but that preserves at the same time the good qualities of precision and is chambered from a large number of manufacturers to find the right weapon and a wide availability of ammunition.

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But even with these concepts it is necessary to make careful assessments: shot too light, although very fast, may find difficulty in killing stubborn game, exploding at the first contact with the tissues and causing only superficial wounds. This in alternative to shot with hard point that, if not meeting bones, pierces the soft tissues being unable to bring to bear on the game the right amount of useful energy to kill, a basic criterion for the hunt.

The hunting literature lists with certain gauges of historical reliability if used in their range of rational use in terms of shooting distances. The list is extensive but we can recal the 7×57 Mauser, the 7×64, the 5,6×57, the 30-30 W, the 30.06, the W 270, the W 308, the 22-250 and the powerful 300 H & H and 357 H & H.

But obviously the choice of gauge is also in function of the type of weapon that you are going to use. The logic of modern hunting with rifled barrel goes toward the specialization of the weapon and as for our game the maximum limit to be taken into consideration is the 30.06, being good for a big lone male wild boar. For other game, such as fallow deer and roe deer, we can consider it more than enough. But the concept is still controversial and hotly-debated among hunters and there are two well-defined schools of thought: one that wants to privilege the powerful gauge to avoid loss of the animal, and the other that focuses on the need to hit the game on the vital point though it’s small so favors small and fast gauges.

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Passing by hunters to experts in ballistics applied to hunting, their advice is to choose the gauge as small as possible in relation to the game, able to carry enough energy on the game for a clean kill in a range that can reach 270-330 yd. This assessment has a security exception if you hunt dangerous animals (if you really want to go to Africa) for which an excess of energy is useful to the security of the hunter.

There are also some logical criteria that you should consider in choosing the gauge relating the habitual environment of hunting:

a) mountain hunting or in open spaces: in this case the logic is to opt for a fast gauge with light shot;

b) hunting in woodland: here quick, light gauges are not to be considered suitable and the best choice for gauges with heavy shot;

c) hunting in different grounds; the case is not specialized and the advice is to opt for an intermediate gauge but it should be able to take in shot with a good range of weights to cover all needs.

An assessment that leads to the small or fast gauge in the mountains there is the result of a factor, the angle of the site. Using in those places fast shot in straight trajectory will help us enormously in the calculation of the angle at which to set the final aim.

A final element of assessment, which makes someone happy and others unhappy, is the combination gun-ammunition. Not all the ammunition have the same in compliance with different weapons; tolerances in camerature set by the manufacturer, the choice of materials for the barrels and their elasticity (there are many types of steel with very different elasticity) may give different results at the shooting. In this case for a hunter the best way to evaluate is test his rifle with ammunition up to define the most suitable ammunition to interface with it.

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

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RIFLED BARREL: FACTORS OF TRAJECTORY

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expert hunter, rifleOnce the bullet has left the barrel, its trajectory is not straight; it starts a descending parable that leads it inexorably to the ground. There are many factors that determine its fall down; the most relevant ones are the gauge, the force of gravity. the weight of the projectile, the initial speed, the air resistance.  It’s easy to understand the effects of the two external factors to the phenomenon ballistic, gravity and air resistance: as for any body suspended in the air, the force of gravity tends to draw it down, while in the case of air resistance it realizes the only effect of reducing the velocity of motion of the projectile. There is also another factor typical of the atmosphere: the “wave resistance”. It consists in the compression of air in front of the projectile when it travels nearby the speed of sound and opposes further resistance.

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The first thing to point out in the shot with a rifle, for sport or hunting, is that the sights are not on the same level with the barrel; the value is variable from 30 to 50 mm for the metallic sights until 60-80 mm of scope. It ‘important to know this distance in order to determine the zero point (ie projectile on the center of the target) of the various ammunition. Here are helpful the ballistic tables, but these indicate the average for each cartridge, suitable for all situations, but for the absolute accuracy, starting from these, it is necessary for the hunter or shooter to calcolate them everytime. In this case we have to remember that even for a single gauge there are many variants on the zero point because of the weight of the projectile and the type of charge.

The second element known for all is that while the line of sight is a straight line, the trajectory of the projectile is not, being as a parable which, for a large part of its stroke, is above the line of sight and then descends below. For accuracy, in its travel the projectile meets twice the line of sight: a first time when intersects it to pass above and a second time when crosses it to go toward the ground (zero point). Therefore, calibrating a weapon for example at 200 meters, the bullet, exiting the barrel, will be below the line of sight, then, in its central part, it will have risen above and then it will meet it in the 200 and then it will continue to descend. So if with a weapon perfectly calibrated to 200 meters I need to shoot at a target a hundred yards, I will have seek to under the center of the target by a distance of a few centimeters indicated by the ballistic tables.

Linked to descending part of the parable there is concept of coverage. This is the total space between the exit of the projectile from the barrel and the point where it touches the ground (reasoning on an hypothetical area completely horizontal). The maximum range (also 1.9-2.3 mi) is achieved with a weapon inclined by 45 ° (in the figure is given from the sum of the distances D1 + D2 + D3). Remaining within the hunting another element is more interesting: the useful coverage. This is the maximum distance within is possible to kill cleanly the game. Here the limit is reached between 320 to 430 yards fast gauge, but we have to advise to reduce it as much since at those distances perfectly is problematic to locate the point where to aim or other factors, not easily valuable, may come into as the crosswind.

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In its advancement in the trajectory the projectile meets the resistance of the air that has variable effect depending on its form. In this case we have to evaluate the sectional density of the projectile and its ballistic coefficient.

The sectional density is obtainable by a complex formula: division of shot weight by its diameter. At the same weight, a shot with a smaller diameter will have more ability to penetrate the air resistance. The greater the number of sectional density, the greater will be the penetration capacity of the air by the projectile.

The ballistic coefficient is obtained with another mathematical formula where the value previously obtained (sectional density) is divided by a coefficient of the form which varies for each type of shot. Also in this case the greater will be the result of the division more effective will be the air penetration of the shot. This is because the projectile, in its trajectory, will have a longer trajectory and a more tense, yielding less energy in the parable and then keeping it for the impact on the target on which comes with greater accuracy.

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

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THE HUNTING AMMUNITION FOR RIFLED 1° PART

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expert, hunter, rifle, ammunitionThe age in which was a great boost the development of modern ammunition for weapons for hunting and shooting rifled identifies the last two decades of the 1800s was the era in which it began to have the availability of smokeless powders, alternatively black which until then had been the only possible propellant in firearms.

The appearance of smokeless powder bore arms manufacturers to pursue the path considered easier, ie the conversion of weapons for hunting and target shooting, born progettualmente for black powder.

But they were pioneering years to the cartridge, because, despite having established the breech, the muzzle-loading yet absorbed the majority of the market and only in regard to the breech coexisted at least 3 systems: a central percussion, spiked and rimfire. The second type was soon abandoned, as the undisputed realm of percussion center, came alongside, coming up to the present day, the rimfire, always limited to small sizes and limited power. All designers, scientists and inventors who wrestled on the study and the patenting of new cartridges, especially hunting, always kept in mind, that the realization of any hunting ammunition, had to meet two basic features: the shooting accuracy and a good stopping power, the latter being understood as the ability of the projectile to “stop the wild.”

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But in hunting weapons, “stop target” meant very different from military weapons, in the same period in rapid evolution. In the latter, the stopping power is the capacity of ammunition to knock out an opponent, depriving him of his ability to harm: this other humanitarian aspects, namely to cause him the least possible damage was associated with the fact that a wounded soldier goes relief and more are injured, more “personal health military” will be used in the armies, to the detriment of the staff of the infantry.

There was also to be considered that the difficulties of designing a good cartridge military, are limited to the target “human”, whose body mass and therefore weight are included in a rather narrow range (140 -308 lb). But when you pass by weapons military weapons for hunting in concepts are quite different.

In this case stopping power means if possible to kill on the spot, or in any case inflict such wounds to immobilize the prey, preventing the escape or the reaction. Moreover, in contrast to those military cartridges for hunting, compared with wild range of physical characteristics quite dissimilar, as are very different resistances to blow. The range is very large since the rifled weapon is used on wild ranging from marmot elephant, and as is obvious, it is impossible to think provide a cartridge adapted to both.

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The stopping power is then physical concept, function of many variables, among which the main one is the energy possessed by the projectile at impact which is given by the difference between the kinetic energy in the launch point (muzzle) and the energy lost during the trip.

Luca Naticchi

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

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EFFEBI TERMINATOR: THE ITALIAN KIPPLAUF

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RiccardoThe ribbed single barrel folding is intended for those who practice strenuous hunts ungulates, whether in the mountains or to look up the hill through the woods and clearings. Became weapon solid, practical and light, leaving only the task of the hunter to aim well without shortness of breath because they never tired. Kipplauf is the weapon by high specialization, designed and developed for the needs montane and alpine Europe workhorse of many historic and successful producers in Germany and Austria.

But it has now crossed borders and is produced with success in Italy.
EFFEBI has been able to reinterpret it, imposing his practical sense and succeeding, through superb accomplishments, to broaden the use of logic and wild which can be addressed. And ‘the case of the Terminator, produced by EFFEBI Concesio (ITALY), and with whom Fabio Beretta, owner and unparalleled creative mind, he wanted to give an answer to some of the specialties of the hunt ball, tackling the issues of realization of the’ weapon from the point of view of the hunter. And let’s start right here, by the end user.

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Terminator is a single-shot rifle folding with the ability to be folded up to bring the barrel in position almost parallel to the calcium. Factor that facilitates the alpine hunter often used to carry the weapon in his backpack. And just to transport over long distances and challenging mountain EFFEBI the thought, creating a product that is a little over 3 kg (3,050 gr.) To which we add the weight of optics that the hunter will choose for his fighter. Lightness, therefore, ease of transport and they do get out of the Terminator by the exclusive use of mountain hunts and for hunting also propose to look at non-alpine ungulates (deer and fallow deer), governs booming throughout the national.
Rifle, carbine, rifled, hunting, Effebi TerminatorThinking about the latter and the real risk that a weapon of high aesthetic refinement may suffer scratches on the wood in search in the woods, the EFFEBI has created a weapon to protect spartan no frills excessively and can distract the hunter. And in this spirit of versatility is achieved in various calibers.

TECHNICAL ASPECTS 
The receiver, the heart of any weapon, is made from a single block of forged steel and cemented in HCD4 houses the trigger group. The opening of the weapon is achieved by adjusting the throttle opening located on the upper tail of the receiver. This action frees the ventral piece and allows the opening of the weapon el’armamento inserting the battery, automatically the security mechanism.

At the close of the weapon appears to be ready, armed with the trigger mechanism, but with the safety engaged automatically.

Rifle, carbine, rifled, hunting, Effebi TerminatorSo the shot is not allowed unless the action takes place voluntarily disengage the safety by sliding forward of the lever behind the throttle opening. The closure of the Terminator is guaranteed by a harpoon downloaded which is housed in the headquarters of the plans of the receiver through the dowel reinforcement created entirely from forged early.

The rotation of the barrel on the receiver is guaranteed by chromium molybdenum steel pin UM10 securely fastened.
The battery has no steckher and the gun has a trigger which 1.200 gr factory calibrated. The barrel is made with UM8 process rotomartellatura cold GFM machines. The barrel has a conical profile and is lapped internally before proceeding to the implementation of the lining in order to obtain both the crest that the bottom row of transparencies so as to make more fluid the path of the ball. The rod is inserted plug in the engine block and then welded silver alloy. The Terminator series is equipped with weaver base for the mounting of optics. It ‘also equipped with rear sight adjustable for those unwilling to use optics.
The EFFEBI upon request will provide the hunter demanding a system of rings slide and quick-release steel products from Contessa that can be mounted on the rifle with four simple screws.
WOODS
Football and boom are in Italian walnut oil finished. The stock has dorsal curvature and supports-cheek style made in Central Europe, which will facilitate the operation correctly targeted. The rod has a rectangular profile and tend to his front has a slight duck bill. Its bottom center houses the deep milling required acceptance of the bridge’s protective trigger. Both football auction have serrations of excellent workmanship made by laser.

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PROOF OF SHOOTING
The EFFEBI for the test has made available a Terminator in 6,5x57R caliber. As the gun-shot and then set to pull out of sequence, the shots were not fired in succession, but only to the cooling of the barrel after the previous stroke. Procedure a bit ‘long in time but more comparable with the shooting.

The test shots were made at 100 meters with ammunition with balls 126, 130, 120 grains. The shot pattern wider than the canonical 100 meters was 25 mm while the closer to 21 mm. The felt recoil was pleasantly reduced despite the rifle used had a weight of only 3,050 grams.

CONCLUSIONS
The weight, the ability to replicate completely the weapon to the long marches of approach to the target, the recoil particularly low and the price, that in setting used does not exceed 1,400 euros including VAT, make the Terminator of EFFEBI an important ally hunter’s ball, which will certainly take into consideration when making your purchase.

TECHNICAL PRODUCT

Manufacturer:  EFFEBI SRL, Via Borsellino 43, 25062 Concesio (Bs)

website:  www.effebisrl.eu       email: info@effebisrl.eu

Model: Terminator

Folding Type: Single barrel shotgun – Kipplauf

Gauges available: 5,6×50 RM, 5,6×52 R, 243 Win, 6,5×57 R, 7×64, 7.65 R, 308 Win, 45-70 Gov.

Closing: a sliding block on crampons with reinforced rocker

Percussion: system in dog inside

Extractor: type manual

Rear: sights come standard with weaver base

Barrel: length 650 mm

Diameter at the muzzle: 14 mm

Pitch of rifling: depending on the rating table CIP

Taking: direct ceramic with a weight of 1,200 grams

Total length of the weapon: 990 mm 38  31/32 in (990 mm)

Weight: about 3,050

Finishing: metal parts finished in black, wood oil finished

List Price: 1.400 Euro ($ 1,874.32)

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