Tag Archives: Shooting



stock, forend, shotgun

hunting expertThe shotgun of each hunter and / or shooter typically undergoes, in both the metal part that in that wood, abrasions and scratches, or simply loss of tone of color due to various factors including, in the first place, time. In addition to this, of course, also the wear and humidity affect, the latter phenomenon due to the use of the weapon in the cold winter days of hunting. We will go, then, to explore how to intervene manually on the wooden parts to bring them back in good condition, acting both on the color (giving it greater vitality and shine) on the structure, trying, with targeted interventions, to eliminate those small incisions that do not limit the functionality of the weapon, but make it less pleasant, especially in the eyes of those who are caring particularly those finishes.

What are the characteristics that the wood, an essential component of the weapon, must possess? Lightness, strength, ability to not distort over time as a result of shots fired and the recoil generated and malleability, id est the ability to be worked with ease in order to create different types of stocks and the possibility to be carved with ease for the creation of drawings that do not tend to blur with the passage of time.

For this invoice are used different types of wood suitable for the purpose.

No wood, however, is as valid as it is the “nut”, already introduced in the production of the first firearms.

It is the only type of wood, between those used, which encapsulates all the key characteristics mentioned above. The more valuable walnut is the French although, of course, can come from other countries, providing the same excellent features. The greatest value of the walnut is represented by its aspect that, following the sizing of the trunk, comes with veining, homogeneous color, porous, robust and lightweight. Also the Italian walnut is not to be despised, although not widely used for the realization of stocks for shotgun.

Only for particular types of weapons we use the “Circassian walnut” from Russia and that, in addition to beautiful grain, has beautiful reflexes, even in not excellent light; its use is, however, limited because it has high costs for feedstock and demands a more accurate processing compared to the classic walnut. Other wood used is beech, albeit of lower quality than the nut for increased heaviness and the veins usually quite faded. The beech, although not indicated for a shotgun of great value or collector, has been widely used in the production of war weapon as Springfleld.


Also several hundreds of thousands of Kalashnikov, currently ubiquitous in the most “hot” areas in the world, have the stock in beech.

Very rarely are also used the maple and the monaco, but the guns with these stock are present only in some regions of Asia.

The restoration of shotgun

The work of cleaning and finishing of wood is a thing for professionals; key is to avoid performing these functions unless you are more than expert, in order not to “spoil” in a definitive way, or nearly, the beauty of the weapon. So you can do the work by yourself only if you have the necessary experience, even if it is always advisable to consult “professional expert” who with competence, passion and use of suitable products, will be able to bring the weapon to an aspect like new.

The transactions listed below to restore the wood are generally carried out only by a professional restorer. This person is a “wood artist” who well knows the importance of the use of exclusive materials and techniques coincident at the time of realization of the gun to be restored.

The only true serious restoration problem is, however, another; the gunsmith is unfortunately an endangered professional, or nearly so, since very few people decide to go down this road craft, carrying on the weapon-making culture of previous generations. The work of the gunsmith may, however, become a profession in all respects, which requires great talent and desire to learn and that, while often lack an adequate financial reward, certainly knows how to be very rewarding. The restoration of the wooden part takes place in a single step? Absolutely no, never! It should also be noted that there is intervention and intervention; one thing is just to bring the weapon bright, and another to take action to remove imperfections, rearrange checkerings…

shotgun hunting

Let us, therefore, to do some clarity on the various steps in the process:

  • Separation of the metal parts from the wooden ones;
  • Removing the previous impregnationof oil with which they were treated the same. This is done with the dive of these in boiling water containing mild soap, subsequent rubbing with brush (not in a steel or with teeth too rigid) in order to remove the oil which emerges from the timber, left for time in boiling water. This operation is carried out several times in order to bring to the surface residues of oil and to can remove them.

Became necessary to repeat the transaction until “micro-droplets of oil” no more will surface;

  • Stripping carried throughaccurate drawing with the brush of a few coats of paint stripper typically made up of a mixture of caustic soda and acetone; its corrosive power melts the paint without going to affect the structure of the wood. To complete the transaction, then you must make use a spatula in order to remove the paint; it should be used with extreme lightness to prevent damaging the wood.

With these procedures shows the raw wooden weapon and it is now that the work superfine begins, ie the actual restoration.

It takes place through the following steps:

  • Elimination of abrasions and bruisesthat are removed by rubbing very gently with sandpaper with a very subtle “grain”. To remove very tiny chips a simple swab is applied to a piece of wood with he size of a match that is rotated over the treated area to remove the whole;
  •  Elimination of holes and / or splinters of wood: these ruined parts are treated with a grinder with a circle of working in soft felt, impregnated with abrasive paste. This treatment leads to an increase of the surface spalling or section of the forum which is, however, compensated by the application of pastes suitable to plug the hole and take the natural line of the wood by sanding later. For this purpose are generally used various types of resins, among which the most suitable is that used for the vessels and, therefore, for marine use. Compared to all other resins, this has the advantage of being more flexible, easier to apply, to take immediately the required shape with a simple and light sanding and be particularly predisposed to absorb the most of the color that will be subsequently applied without leaving streaks or no shade;
  • • Renew the checkering: the checkering, really, often doesn’t ruins in, but his line and depth tend to decrease fat accumulation due to contact with the hands, as well as moisture and dirt. Became enough then to switch several times (2-3 times) a particular type of solvent in wide commercial use and available in many armories, with the aid of a simple brush to remove any debris. After the first pass, you will notice a pronounced difference than before.
  • New water protection of wood: this is the phase that precedes the final painting. In this phase sealing materials are laid on the wood, generally derived from chemical substances and however readily available, which allow us to limit the new wear caused by moisture in the case of subsequent use of the weapon for hunting purposes or for target shooting. The master restorers generally stretch 2-3 coats of waterproofing, letting between them the time required for the timber is soaked in the substance.
  • Painting: is the penultimate stage of the cycle of restoration, one that allows the weapon to return to their natural color, reviving it in the tone and enhancing the wood grain. At this stage it is absolutely not necessary to use the exact same shade of color that the wood had previously; you can, in fact, use a different shade, better if a little darker to give greater prominence to the wood itself, highlighting the grain and making them much more pleasing to the eye for ancient. You can also create mixtures with more colors, but to do this you have to be a true master because if the color that you give is not of high quality and pleasantness you risk damaging irreparably or almost the beauty of the shotgun, sometimes of high honor and owned by a collector.

Before making the painting is very important to “treat the wood with sealants’, available from specialist companies; they allow you to close all the “pores” that open into the wood as a result of the previous sanding and cleaning. In fact, these holes, if opened, through the chemical process of “osmosis” would tend to absorb moisture giving air contained in them outwards, resulting in irreparable bulge, if not breaking, of the wooden parts a short time after the painting.

• Polishing: it is the last stage, after which you will present to our eyes as a new weapon in its aesthetics. This is done by drawing up a few hands of “flaxseed oil” (possibly adjusted), letting it dry well between coats to allow for good absorption.

Also cottonseed oil and / or sesame seeds can be used as an alternative, but flax oil is best the long better than the others because it tends to “oxidize” when in contact with air, forming a transparent and elastic film that is advisable for many types of shotguns, not only by collectors but also fo hunting shotguns or for war weapons.

The restoration of the shotgun provides, generally, that all parties are renew and, therefore, not only the wooden ones but also mechanical ones, such as firing mechanisms, the castle and the barrel, but this topic we will discuss in the following .

For now, if you dare, have a “good job” !!

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor



stock, forend, shotgun

Teresa Renda woman hunterThe rifle is the weapon for hunting safer and more powerful that man has ever been able to build on this doubt does not exist. But despite having far exceeded the legendary David’s sling or the bow of Diana or the spears of many peoples of the past, even the modern rifle hunting requires the hunter to be able to use it to the best; exactly how these weapons in the past.

It is not enough to pull the trigger to make sure to bring down a wild, but the weapon requires the consistent exercise and all of man’s ability to implement its full capacity detrimental. The dots must be directed with great precision on the prey often on the move, to intercept the trajectory, that it is the stroke of a hare or the flight of a partridge.

The hunters rush to buy the latest model of rifle cartridges and more effective, but often do not seek to improve their technique of the shot, with the theoretical and practical learning of the most basic methods of pointing, simply because they think they already perfect. An old proverb hunting says: “You can be born passionate hunters, but only with a regular exercise can become good shooters.”

The target must be targeted with precision for a few moments before gently press the trigger of the gun to make the shot. The shooting stopped is not difficult, in fact, requires accurate sighting to hit the animal with the central part of the shot pattern, especially shooting at arm loose, ie, with no weapon placed on stable surface, as a rule in the shot with the shotgun.

hunter, shooting

Throws a ball only made ​​in polygon, or those dots on the plate, show that any shooter is subject to errors of pointing, even in the shots stopped. Just who the shooter weapon emboss a small movement with the famous “shoulder shot” or with a jerk” on the trigger sudden, because the target can not be missed centered as expected.

When the shooter and the target are placed on the same horizontal plane, you must aim for the center body of the animal. If the target is located in a much higher or lower than the shooter, in both cases you should be aware of the pink dots ranks high compared to the focused point.

Hitting an animal that moves, flying or running on the ground, it is not always as easy as drinking a glass of water. Often depends on the speed and distance of the target, by the regularity of the trajectory, the time available to aim, by natural obstacles of the environment, the lighting conditions, the quick reflexes of the hunter, the different degree of fatigue, and the confidence in their own abilities.

hunting, shooting, shotgun

In any case, the obstacle resides in sending the shot is not where the eye locates the wild instant in which the finger presses the trigger, but where the animal will be found after a few seconds.

This advance” directional weapon, relative to the position of the animal, it must be estimated on the basis of his experience of shooting. Advance is a technical term used to mean a metric correction, depending on the direction of flight and the angle of the shot. The shot against moving targets can be performed with three different methods, which require a different value in advance.

The shot consists in bringing quickly jab the gun to the shoulder, and so that the line of sight is already to be automatically directed to the point of interception of the likely trajectory of the wild, or that the pointing requires a minimum fast correction. The eyes of the shooter must remain open in order to verify the outcome of the shot and repeat if necessary. This shot requires experience and alertness.

The second shooting system is defined as an accompaniment to overtake. It is used to shoot wild fast not having a linear trajectory, and the advance must be slightly lower than that required in the shooting of thrust, if the rifle is stopped at the moment when the trigger is pressed, otherwise the shot passes behind and below the target, according to which the flight is horizontal or vertical (the typical column of woodcock or pheasant in the woods).

The third type of shooting is called accompaniment to precede. Excellent results in the shootings at the farthest distances. The action can be broken down into five stages: sighting of the wild, shouldering the weapon, accompanying targeted trajectory for a long stretch, overtaking the target to get some early pressure on the trigger without stopping the movement of the rifle. In this case, the value of the advance can be much lower, because the angular velocity of the rods affects not just on the trajectory of the shot, in part compensating for the displacement from the wild. Obvious to say that the system is feasible only if there exists all the time to follow the target with the aiming line, to precede of just enough in relation to its speed and the distance. It is a precision shooting, performed with only one eye and with a good workout.

And now … good exercise to all !!

Teresa Renda

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

ammunition, 308 win


stock, forend, shotgun

expert, hunter, rifle, ammunition

For a long time the concept of efficiency of gauge, for the Italian hunters, resided in the 30-06 gauge and the 308 W gauge has been relegated to the corner because of its case shorter than the previous. But ballistically this is not true . The reasons are manifold.
In the first place we have to consider  the recai; the 308 W at the shoulder is “feeled” very. The energy itself, for equal bulltes, is lower than the 30-06 of about a 10% , factor that allows to chamber the gauge in  lighter  guns also because endowed with a shorter action.

On the other hand it is also known that between the medium gauges, the 308 W is also clearly the most accurate so that is the caliber of choice in precision shooting.

ammunition, rifle, 308 W, shooting, hunting

On the other hand this gauge did a lot of experimentation, being the civil version of the well known military gauge 7,62×51.  It was developed in 1952 by theWinchester Company and was charged with ball powder and it is very similar to its military sister  even if the exercise pressures are greater. It derives from the.300 Savage

The bullets assigned to this gauge have a great swing weight, it starts from 93 grains to reach 200. With the 308 W is absolutely possible to hunt the same game that you hunt with the 30-06. In its category, which includes 7×57, 7.64, 284W, 7 mm-08 and 30-06, the 308 W is one that provides the absolute highest level of precision.

This quality is highlighted with test where at 100 with most of the weapons on the market we can have shot patterns of  5 strokes of 20 mm and, when you use the specific ammunition, you can obtain  shot patterns of 10-12 mm.

ammunition, rifle, 308 W, shooting, hunting

They are extraordinary results for a 7 mm gauge with great power cartridge. Because of its potential, the caliber 308 W is either chambered in bolt action rifles and semi-automatic.

Despite the initial distrust, the 308W has become one of the best sporting ammunition, and it is probably the most versatile and popular among centerfire cartridges.

ammunition, rifle, 308 W, shooting, hunting

The .308 Win doesn’t to realize an excessive wear of the barrel, so they come with confidence to 5,000 shots fired.
Charging is defined quite simple and does not require excessive fussiness by charging it. The wide availability of charge materials certainly facilitates this practice dear to many hunters and shooters.

Luca Naticchi

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

purdey, shotgun, hunting


stock, forend, shotgun

expert hunter, rifleWhen the hunting weapon had its greatest progress passing from the breech-loading to the avancarica, builders had the problem of how to introduce ammunition. They chose almost universally (Darne, in a second time, took another road) to tilt the shotgun and it became a weapon that opened in two forming an angle sufficient to introduce the hunting cartridge.

The new solution generated a new distressing problem with the gas seal and, then, relative to the absolute efficiency of the shot and the safety of the shooter.

This problem there was because the barrels and the receiver were no longer a single body, but two, and they had to be tightened between them and to resist the forces that, triggered by the combustion of gunpowder, tended to separate them. The rotation pin was absolutely not sufficient because its purpose was to allow the opening, so you had to devise the presence of a mechanical element able to resist the force of the explosion and keep the two parts (barrels and floor of the receiver) absolutely together.

The solution was devised by the company Purdey and was considered so ingenious and effective to be, from that time, the minimum standard of the closures of the modern shotgun. But how it was structured and how it works?

Closing Purdey shotgun

purdey, shothun, hunting, side by side

The barrels housed, above the receiver, have in the bottom two tenons that, in the closing phase, are inserted in the appropriate housing seat of the receiver.

Within the latter is housed a semi-bar constituted by two elements that, advancing at the time of closure of the weapon, operated by the turning key opening, tighten the beaks of the tenons. This closure is so tight if well done, to render useless the third closing (i.e. The Greener) that comes in function, for the most part, only a in case of the failure of the others.

The efficiency of the closing Purdey, called also “duplex” because of the tightening carried out by the two tenons, is considered so high that the company not added a third closing and even prestigious Italian companies, i.e. Bernardelli, still continue to do it. The dual closure Purdey is still used in all shotguns, hammerless and external hammer.

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

rifle, carbine, hunting, lever action, shooting


shothunt, ear protection

Riccardo Ceccarelli, hunter

We have seen it wielded by John Wayne and his sidekicks and undoubtedly the repetition lever carbine has had a resounding success in the North America that still continues.

The whole genesis of repetition lever weapons was born in the United States, on the wave of strong demand for weapons that have a high rate of fire. The studies and patents were outlined according to two well-defined lines.

The first line led to the realization of the Spencer carbine, weapon provided with a tubular reservoir housed in stock and equipped with circular shutter which rotated forward and backward, thanks to a lever that is extension of the bridge that protects the trigger. The carbine had a brief success in the market for the simple reason that housed very short ammunition which of course, due to the low powder charge hosted, resulted less powerful.

rifle, carbine, hunting, lever action, shooting

The second line, in North America, was the Henry carbine, which reproduced the patent Volcanic that in 1854 Smith and Wesson had deposited for the realization of a big pistol which proved impractical and not appreciated by the market for the devastating competition proposal by Colt with its drum handguns.

rifle, carbine, hunting, lever action, shooting

Oliver Fisher Winchester in 1857 bought the patent and or put it into practice in the model Henry in 1860. In this one the closing was structured in three aligned hinges. It was an important system in the history of firearms since the alignment criterion was taken from the Luger automatic pistols and Maxim machine gun.

rifle, carbine, hunting, lever action, shooting

The Henry carbines were produced continuously from 1860 to 1919 and the original model, produced until 1866, then was changed for the power supply (which originally was towards the end of the tank) with the introduction of a flap on the side of the receiver, run by a spring, which made the loading more convenient. Both Henry that the parallel Winchester 1866 used rimfire cartridges. In 1973 came the revolution in terms of ammunition, consecrated in Winchester 1973, with the new centerfire cartridges, better performance than the previous ones. The new ammunition forced the company to reinforce the overall structure of the weapon for the most power of ammunition fired.

rifle, carbine, hunting, lever action, shooting

The increased power of the ammunition did the company note, however, that the Henry system had serious limitations and in the years after 1884, thanks to the genius of John Moses Browning, the system was partially revolutionized in another carbine of great success, the model 1894.

The commercial success of the company was huge, particularly in the North American continent enjoying a huge spread and became undoubtedly the symbol of an era. There were also times in which the differentiation between a military weapon and a sport weapon was tenuous and in this context the same Russia, for its armed forces, required massive orders to Winchester. Despite the great success, few imitation attempts were made because of the big company’s ability to cover with many patents its production. Probably only the Spanish “Tiger” remains the only attempt to approach the most popular ever lever carbine.

While Winchester was celebrating his achievements, another manufacturer, Marlin, carrying on his projects through the creation of patents with side ejection as opposed to earlier who had expelled vertically. Great action also that of Marlin that had a good success but never became universally appreciated as the most celebrated Winchester.

Riccardo Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

mauser rifle bolt action


stock, forend, shotgun

Riccardo Ceccarelli, hunterWhen the brothers Wilhelm and Paul Mauser perfected their bolt action patent for the rifles, “won” a thrilling race that had been unleashed among many European producers and not only, to search for an efficient system of repetition and able to give to the armies a wider volume of fire. In reality repeater systems existed already. In North America continent the lever system was asserted (Winchester, Marlin, Henry, Spencer, etc.) but these weapons provided, for the management of their tank, ammunition with a rounded nose cone that ill-suited to high-distance shots, need that armies had more and more insistently.

So they were looking for something different and, although the Mauser brothers were two of the many who were studying new solutions, they were the first who developed a new system really effective that celebrated with the model 1898 that became the weapon ordinance of the German army and there was both during the first and the second world war. The system of rotating cylindrical sliding shutter, that the Anglo-Saxons called bolt action, was even taken over by the American army because the legendary model Springfiled 1903 had in some Mauser patents of which had been duly purchased the license. The two world wars, and many other of the period that developed in World, supplied the Mauser lot of experience to make all improvements and to make its bolt action throughout the twentieth century the highest performance ever.

mauser. rifle. shooting. war, hunting

But why was it so appreciated in terms of the market?

The patent and the subsequent improvements brought at least 4 elements of success:

A – The great simplicity of the locking repeat mechanisms that were made ​​with a considerably reduced number of components, correlated to the simplicity of use and maintenance.

B – The high safety degree of the locking mechanisms, able to ensure also the use of ammunition of high power, and safety in relation to the reduced risk of jamming during the action of resetting.

C – Duration virtually unlimited if the bolt action is made ​​with good quality materials and is treated in time with proper care and maintenance.

D – The great versatility because that the same bolt action could be successfully used in the production of many weapon models without modification of particular importance, and this on the industrial level was and is a not negligible factor.

mauser, rifle, hunting. war, shooting

For these characteristics, although the Mauser were two of many, their system came to be universally accepted as a point of reference, both for military weapons for those destined for hunts, even those for impressive animals which, until that time, had been prerogative of the express.

Riccardo Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

shoting angle of site rifle


stock, forend, shotgun

Riccardo Ceccarelli, hunter

The hunt for rifle amateur is often preceded by a large number of tests in shooting range where we can calibrate very well rifle and optics. But then, when we move in countryside armed for hunting practice, we have to confronted ourselves with  a ballistic problem that we didn’t can. As it  always happens in the Alps and Apennines, we will in the condition in which the shooter and the target are located on different levels and this important new element, not present in the polygon, will test us to find a new adjustment and correction of the shot.

All of us bullet hunters the physical logic of the trajectory of a bullet, and we all know one thing: the trajectory of a projectile is not linear but curved. This happens because as soon as the projectile exits from the barrel begins to undergo the effect of the force of gravity. So far the concept is logical and easily acceptable. This is the reason why all we know that the shot fall and that the calibration of the optics to a specific distance is not more than the compensation for this fall, variable from time to time in function of the launch velocity of the projectile and by its weight.

So the trajectory is curved and in case of reset at 218 yards, the trajectory passes above the horizontal line at 164 yards.

angle of site, shooting, hunting, rifle

When we shoot upward (with positive angle) or down (negative angle) the calibration must be compensated because, in both cases, the shot trajectory will be higher than the target focused. In this case, the mathematical formula that explains the phenomenon is quite complicated, but the hunter will need to know that he will have compensate make as if he had aim lower. Excluding that everyone has the mental capacity to compensate that some very expert alpine hunters have, we try to give references. In relation to the angle of site with which we shoot downwards or upwards and established the exact distance of the target, we have to compensate as if we had to shot to a nearest target.

But how much closer?

There are many reference tables that contain multipliers. Here we report for convenience compensation coefficients ranging from 15 to 60 degrees of inclination.

15 ° angle multiplier 0.96 30 ° angle multiplier 0.87 45 ° angle multiplier 0.70 60 ° angle multiplier 0.50

Let’s take an example.

If we shoot a chamois placed over us, and we find that the angle of the shot has an angle of 45 degrees, we should consider that the calculation of the trajectory for the animal positioned a 218 yards will be as follows: 218 yards x 0.70 = 153 yards.

angle of site, shooting, hunting, rifle

We will have to consider, therefore, that it will be like to shoot at a target placed at 153 yards and, then, we have to adjust the optical.

Riccardo Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

sport optics, rifle, huntinh, shooting


shothunt, ear protection

Teresa Renda woman hunterThe accuracy should not be confused with the “rightness” since the latter is a purely ballistic quality is derived from the characteristics of the rifle is fired munitions; it therefore concerns a wider range of elements that come into play.

  The compatibility between barrel length, caliber and rifling pitch, velocity of the projectile, its weight and shape; all these elements are the ingredients that define the correctness of a weapon. A ‘weapon’ not right ‘generates a high dispersion of projectiles launched, while maintaining unchanged the pointing, so the shot will never be accurate. In fact, some rifles denounce sometimes yield uncertain because they lack in correctness. When a rifle performs a constant shift with respect to the point of aim, you can correct the error by activation of aims, through a new and accurate collimation, between point of aim and point of impact of the bullet.

 But if the finding of the shots that do not satisfy us is due to pointing errors, and the problem is not so in the rightness of the weapon, the only remedy is to resort to the weapons sights more precise and effective, facilitating the targeting mainly in place by strong shots away.

As for weapons for hunting and shooting, each pointing system has special characteristics of performance, making it preferable for a particular purpose, in connection with the shooting that can be targeted against stationary or moving, the distance of the target and the its speed of movement, the time available for the target, to the characteristics of the trajectory of the projectile.

rifle.hunting, shooting, carbine

  The mechanical parts are the more traditional method of tracking and simple that it is used in rifled guns, and that is typical of military origin. The device “of stand up,” can be fixed sight, adjustable slider or dial. Land lines are formed by the viewfinder and a standing place on the socket, said skim coat, bearing the rear sight. The viewfinder is fixed, may have a quadrangular section, triangular, circular, in the form of pearl, thread. In this case, the perfect tracking is obtained by aligning the rear sight, the viewfinder and the center of the target.

Shotgun target organ diottraIl system is not very accurate because it is simply a small error in the alignment of the three elements to prove a significant shift of the shot; still allows a pointing among the fastest, suitable for shots of no more than 80-100 m. In some shooting and hunting rifles, the rear sight is replaced with a diopter. Formed by a metallic device adjustable, fixed on the back of the castle of the rifle. At the height of the device is a disk with a small hole in the center, where it passes the line of sight of the target. You simply put in focus the viewfinder and the target to achieve a proper pointing. The diopter focus and tallies the only two items instead of three (notch, sight and target), in addition to the fact that the hole is closest to the eye of the normal rear sight. Generally the pin is used for the shot in the polygon, in particular for airguns.

rifle.hunting, shooting, carbine
Pointing Devices fast as the Single Point Kiln Acre and others, are optical devices for the shot against moving targets. Shape similar to a telescope, connected to the gun with the usual attacks, they can give you a view of the target normal or slightly enlarged. The collimation is done by the central red dot, which remains visible shooting with both eyes open, even in poor light conditions. Its defect is represented by the precision that is very relative, which limits the field of application only for a short distance shots.

The telescope on the other hand, is an optical instrument for observing objects at great distances, allowing to increase the visual size compared to observation with the naked eye.
The telescope enables to send the bullet in a vital point of the body of the wild, to bring it down on the spot. Avoid sunlight reflections that form the common organs of sight, visual defects of the shooter medians a diopter correction, enhances the ballistic qualities of the weapon and ammunition.

rifle.hunting, shooting, carbine

The optics can not completely eliminate human error, much less atmospheric effects that affect the trajectory of the bullet, nor replace humans in the calculation of the correction imposed by pointing the shot.
The presence of the lens is intended to be counterproductive in the shooting to fast moving targets, shooting in sudden, from a short distance, in hunting and in the dangerous animals in the bush, in framing the target quickly and for the reduction of the visual field. The modern trend has however allowed many companies to develop “from optical beat”, able to overcome the above critical.

  Teresa Renda

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

chocke, shooting, shotgun, hunting, barrel


shothunt, ear protection

woman hunterThe need of the hunter has always been to shoot farther and farther away, and the numerous and painful experiences made in the last century to reduce the dispersion of the shot and then to its compact size and greater penetration in the air, led to the invention of bottleneck of the barrels.
The bottleneck is the reduction of the inner diameter of the smooth barrel near the muzzle.

Its purpose, to reduce the dispersion of the shot favoring the concentration, in order to obtain a long-distance shot pattern more dense, smaller and more regular distribution. In 1866 William Rochester Pape of Newcastle, patented the “drilling choked,” obtained by perforating the entire barrel with a caliber of less diameter, then alesandola from the breech until it reaches the inner diameter of the caliber you want, stopping at about 9.84 in cm from the mouth. The two sections with different diameter were connected with a fitting conical profile.

chocke, shotgun, hunting, shooting

In St. Etienne and Liege made similar attempts to extend and improve the shot but it turned out almost always unsuccessful. Only by WW Greener was established in 1875 and with the changes to the drilling could have significant concentrations of pink and the ways he had experimented remained valid until today. The shape of the constriction of the barrel of a shotgun is affected by the thickness, type of steel, from the elasticity of the walls and by the reactions semi-elastic properties of the pellets.

Usually the bottleneck starts at about 1.97 in from the muzzle, ending with a long cylindrical section from 20 to 30 mm The connection between the two cylindrical portions of soul and mouth can have a different profile: truncated cone rectum and parabolic; but there have been in the history of ballistics shotgun other types of internal profiles of the barrel, with multiple bottlenecks in succession called “ring” with flared end sections and bottlenecks in rifling straight or parabolic. Fittings with short and sharp angles are more effective than long ones and elusive, but the connections shorter than 20 mm is experienced, they tend to create clusters of dots. Going beyond a certain limit of the slope of the fitting, decade regularity of distribution of the pattern.

The effect of the restriction of the pipes is a little reduced with the use of plastic materials in the cartridges, in particular the container of the shot, which reduces the value of the dispersions. In fact, firing ammunition of this type, we have discreetly throws more concentrated than with the classical wad.

hunting, choche, shooting, shotgunThe current tendency to reduce the weight of the shot charge in 12 gauge, contributes in no small importance to restore the functionality of the bottleneck, unless you want to give up a few yards of payload. If you reduce the number of shots fired, all the more necessary to maintain a sufficient density of pinkish medium and long distances, even if for this reason the difficulty of pull ups. Many bottlenecks by skeet are based to a shrinkage of 14/15 tenths followed by a flared profile, ie in the shape of an inverted cone in the last stretch of the barrel, resulting in a ‘minimal interference in limiting the divergence of the shot, the walls of the mouth. If the terminal cylindrical portion is very short, perhaps the office of weights even touches him with the peripheral dots, being contracted by the bottleneck.

If the stretch is long enough 0.98/1.18 in, acts on the peripheral dots returning them by shock inward of the swarm. If it was long, the wad of progress tend to reassemble the column of dots in the package, canceling the effect choke. The bottleneck is imported element for all gauges of shotguns smooth bore. Indeed, with the advent important in the market for hunting guns of small caliber (.410 and 28), whose amount of lead used is obviously limited, the bottleneck performs an essential function in maintaining the compact pinkish.

 Teresa Renda

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Shotgun, hunting, hunters, rifle fit


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Many factors are involved in the shot with a rifle. One factor that is not well understood by many shooters, and receives too little attention by most of us, it l’adattamento of the gun to the shooter.

Since we generally do not have the possibility to choose between different configurations calciature, but we have to accept the gun as it was built, we tend not to pay much attention to what is involved in adapting the weapon, we are content to shoot with what we have. The various factors in the game are easy to understand, and each shooter of long guns should have confidence.

Shotgun, hunting, hunters, rifle fit

Some definitions are needed for the discussion.

In the drawing, the dashed line that extends from the tip of the barrel “C” is the line of sight. The heel and toe -hell- -toe- football are indicated, such as calcium -butt-, with the butt plate. Let us now consider the measurements shown, and we give them a meaning.

If we draw a perpendicular from the line of sight down to the crest of football, as indicated in “BB”, this distance is called the “distance hake” (drop at comb). This is probably the most critical of all the factors that affect the fit. E ‘to the point of hake that our cheek pose while aiming. If this distance is right, when you “weld” our cheek on it, our eyes naturally falls in line with the aims.

We are able to take up the gun to our shoulder with a quick shot, and we should not change the position before firing. Became obvious that this measure is extremely important for a shotgun, or for any long gun with no rear sight. The distance of the hake is the rear sight.

If the nose is too high, even the eye is forced upwards, and we tend to shoot up. To counter this trend, we push our cheek too strong against the football, trying to lower his eyes. This is not a comfortable and natural way to target, and also lead to a strong blow to the cheek due to the recoil of the rifle.

If the nose is too low, the eye is too low, and we tend to shoot low. To avoid this, we are to support our very lightly on the cheek, nose, or even take lightly our cheek from football. It is certainly not good for accuracy. The average distance to the nose of the American rifles in recent years is in the range of 1.5 to 1.75 inches, equal to 38 ÷ 45mm.

Pulling a perpendicular from the line of sight to the heel, “CC”, the measure is called the “distance to the heel” (drop at hell). This is much less important for adaptation of the weapon of the distance to the nose.

Considering that a small change in the distance to the nose can make a big difference, a fairly wide range of distance measurements to the heel can be conveniently used according to the average shooter.

One thing that does not change with this measure is the perceived recoil. A rifle with a small distance to the heel is said to have a kick “straight.”

The recoil is more in line with football, more directly on the shoulder with a kick straight and more comfortable for most shooters. Kicks with a large distance to the heel can provide a lot of pain to shoot, because hake recoils against her cheek. The Americans are a comfortable distance to the heel in a field that ranges from 2.25 to 3.0 inches, equal to 57 ÷ 76 mm.

The distance “DD” in the drawing is called “distance from the trigger” (trigger pull). It is a very important measure when considering the suitable adaptation of a football. It is defined as the distance from the center of the butt (butt) in the center of the trigger. Became also understandable that it is also a direct measure of the length of the stock of a rifle any.

Too great a distance away from the shooter holds the rifle, it tends to move the cheek forward and brings the football back in an attempt to compensate. Calcium also tend to get tangled in the clothes quickly when it wields the rifle.

A distance is too short inconvenient for alignment, forcing the shooter to keep his face back, away from the breech, to maintain correct alignment. A distance too short will also result to send the thumb of the shooter to hit him on the nose under the effect of recoil.

An average shooter can be considered a remote trigger from 13 to 14 inches, approximately 33 to 35.5 cm. This really depends on how high the shooter, and how long are his arms. Many rifles ancients had a short distance, about 12 inches, but most modern shooters is a comfortable distance of 13:25 ÷ 13.5 inches (33.5 ÷ 34.2 cm).

Bob Spencer & Claudio Leonetti

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