Category Archives: Shooting

Firearms and shooting technique

sport optics, rifle, huntinh, shooting


shothunt, ear protection

Teresa Renda woman hunterThe accuracy should not be confused with the “rightness” since the latter is a purely ballistic quality is derived from the characteristics of the rifle is fired munitions; it therefore concerns a wider range of elements that come into play.

  The compatibility between barrel length, caliber and rifling pitch, velocity of the projectile, its weight and shape; all these elements are the ingredients that define the correctness of a weapon. A ‘weapon’ not right ‘generates a high dispersion of projectiles launched, while maintaining unchanged the pointing, so the shot will never be accurate. In fact, some rifles denounce sometimes yield uncertain because they lack in correctness. When a rifle performs a constant shift with respect to the point of aim, you can correct the error by activation of aims, through a new and accurate collimation, between point of aim and point of impact of the bullet.

 But if the finding of the shots that do not satisfy us is due to pointing errors, and the problem is not so in the rightness of the weapon, the only remedy is to resort to the weapons sights more precise and effective, facilitating the targeting mainly in place by strong shots away.

As for weapons for hunting and shooting, each pointing system has special characteristics of performance, making it preferable for a particular purpose, in connection with the shooting that can be targeted against stationary or moving, the distance of the target and the its speed of movement, the time available for the target, to the characteristics of the trajectory of the projectile.

rifle.hunting, shooting, carbine

  The mechanical parts are the more traditional method of tracking and simple that it is used in rifled guns, and that is typical of military origin. The device “of stand up,” can be fixed sight, adjustable slider or dial. Land lines are formed by the viewfinder and a standing place on the socket, said skim coat, bearing the rear sight. The viewfinder is fixed, may have a quadrangular section, triangular, circular, in the form of pearl, thread. In this case, the perfect tracking is obtained by aligning the rear sight, the viewfinder and the center of the target.

Shotgun target organ diottraIl system is not very accurate because it is simply a small error in the alignment of the three elements to prove a significant shift of the shot; still allows a pointing among the fastest, suitable for shots of no more than 80-100 m. In some shooting and hunting rifles, the rear sight is replaced with a diopter. Formed by a metallic device adjustable, fixed on the back of the castle of the rifle. At the height of the device is a disk with a small hole in the center, where it passes the line of sight of the target. You simply put in focus the viewfinder and the target to achieve a proper pointing. The diopter focus and tallies the only two items instead of three (notch, sight and target), in addition to the fact that the hole is closest to the eye of the normal rear sight. Generally the pin is used for the shot in the polygon, in particular for airguns.

rifle.hunting, shooting, carbine
Pointing Devices fast as the Single Point Kiln Acre and others, are optical devices for the shot against moving targets. Shape similar to a telescope, connected to the gun with the usual attacks, they can give you a view of the target normal or slightly enlarged. The collimation is done by the central red dot, which remains visible shooting with both eyes open, even in poor light conditions. Its defect is represented by the precision that is very relative, which limits the field of application only for a short distance shots.

The telescope on the other hand, is an optical instrument for observing objects at great distances, allowing to increase the visual size compared to observation with the naked eye.
The telescope enables to send the bullet in a vital point of the body of the wild, to bring it down on the spot. Avoid sunlight reflections that form the common organs of sight, visual defects of the shooter medians a diopter correction, enhances the ballistic qualities of the weapon and ammunition.

rifle.hunting, shooting, carbine

The optics can not completely eliminate human error, much less atmospheric effects that affect the trajectory of the bullet, nor replace humans in the calculation of the correction imposed by pointing the shot.
The presence of the lens is intended to be counterproductive in the shooting to fast moving targets, shooting in sudden, from a short distance, in hunting and in the dangerous animals in the bush, in framing the target quickly and for the reduction of the visual field. The modern trend has however allowed many companies to develop “from optical beat”, able to overcome the above critical.

  Teresa Renda

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

chocke, shooting, shotgun, hunting, barrel


shothunt, ear protection

woman hunterThe need of the hunter has always been to shoot farther and farther away, and the numerous and painful experiences made in the last century to reduce the dispersion of the shot and then to its compact size and greater penetration in the air, led to the invention of bottleneck of the barrels.
The bottleneck is the reduction of the inner diameter of the smooth barrel near the muzzle.

Its purpose, to reduce the dispersion of the shot favoring the concentration, in order to obtain a long-distance shot pattern more dense, smaller and more regular distribution. In 1866 William Rochester Pape of Newcastle, patented the “drilling choked,” obtained by perforating the entire barrel with a caliber of less diameter, then alesandola from the breech until it reaches the inner diameter of the caliber you want, stopping at about 9.84 in cm from the mouth. The two sections with different diameter were connected with a fitting conical profile.

chocke, shotgun, hunting, shooting

In St. Etienne and Liege made similar attempts to extend and improve the shot but it turned out almost always unsuccessful. Only by WW Greener was established in 1875 and with the changes to the drilling could have significant concentrations of pink and the ways he had experimented remained valid until today. The shape of the constriction of the barrel of a shotgun is affected by the thickness, type of steel, from the elasticity of the walls and by the reactions semi-elastic properties of the pellets.

Usually the bottleneck starts at about 1.97 in from the muzzle, ending with a long cylindrical section from 20 to 30 mm The connection between the two cylindrical portions of soul and mouth can have a different profile: truncated cone rectum and parabolic; but there have been in the history of ballistics shotgun other types of internal profiles of the barrel, with multiple bottlenecks in succession called “ring” with flared end sections and bottlenecks in rifling straight or parabolic. Fittings with short and sharp angles are more effective than long ones and elusive, but the connections shorter than 20 mm is experienced, they tend to create clusters of dots. Going beyond a certain limit of the slope of the fitting, decade regularity of distribution of the pattern.

The effect of the restriction of the pipes is a little reduced with the use of plastic materials in the cartridges, in particular the container of the shot, which reduces the value of the dispersions. In fact, firing ammunition of this type, we have discreetly throws more concentrated than with the classical wad.

hunting, choche, shooting, shotgunThe current tendency to reduce the weight of the shot charge in 12 gauge, contributes in no small importance to restore the functionality of the bottleneck, unless you want to give up a few yards of payload. If you reduce the number of shots fired, all the more necessary to maintain a sufficient density of pinkish medium and long distances, even if for this reason the difficulty of pull ups. Many bottlenecks by skeet are based to a shrinkage of 14/15 tenths followed by a flared profile, ie in the shape of an inverted cone in the last stretch of the barrel, resulting in a ‘minimal interference in limiting the divergence of the shot, the walls of the mouth. If the terminal cylindrical portion is very short, perhaps the office of weights even touches him with the peripheral dots, being contracted by the bottleneck.

If the stretch is long enough 0.98/1.18 in, acts on the peripheral dots returning them by shock inward of the swarm. If it was long, the wad of progress tend to reassemble the column of dots in the package, canceling the effect choke. The bottleneck is imported element for all gauges of shotguns smooth bore. Indeed, with the advent important in the market for hunting guns of small caliber (.410 and 28), whose amount of lead used is obviously limited, the bottleneck performs an essential function in maintaining the compact pinkish.

 Teresa Renda

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

Shotgun, hunting, hunters, rifle fit


shothunt, ear protection

Many factors are involved in the shot with a rifle. One factor that is not well understood by many shooters, and receives too little attention by most of us, it l’adattamento of the gun to the shooter.

Since we generally do not have the possibility to choose between different configurations calciature, but we have to accept the gun as it was built, we tend not to pay much attention to what is involved in adapting the weapon, we are content to shoot with what we have. The various factors in the game are easy to understand, and each shooter of long guns should have confidence.

Shotgun, hunting, hunters, rifle fit

Some definitions are needed for the discussion.

In the drawing, the dashed line that extends from the tip of the barrel “C” is the line of sight. The heel and toe -hell- -toe- football are indicated, such as calcium -butt-, with the butt plate. Let us now consider the measurements shown, and we give them a meaning.

If we draw a perpendicular from the line of sight down to the crest of football, as indicated in “BB”, this distance is called the “distance hake” (drop at comb). This is probably the most critical of all the factors that affect the fit. E ‘to the point of hake that our cheek pose while aiming. If this distance is right, when you “weld” our cheek on it, our eyes naturally falls in line with the aims.

We are able to take up the gun to our shoulder with a quick shot, and we should not change the position before firing. Became obvious that this measure is extremely important for a shotgun, or for any long gun with no rear sight. The distance of the hake is the rear sight.

If the nose is too high, even the eye is forced upwards, and we tend to shoot up. To counter this trend, we push our cheek too strong against the football, trying to lower his eyes. This is not a comfortable and natural way to target, and also lead to a strong blow to the cheek due to the recoil of the rifle.

If the nose is too low, the eye is too low, and we tend to shoot low. To avoid this, we are to support our very lightly on the cheek, nose, or even take lightly our cheek from football. It is certainly not good for accuracy. The average distance to the nose of the American rifles in recent years is in the range of 1.5 to 1.75 inches, equal to 38 ÷ 45mm.

Pulling a perpendicular from the line of sight to the heel, “CC”, the measure is called the “distance to the heel” (drop at hell). This is much less important for adaptation of the weapon of the distance to the nose.

Considering that a small change in the distance to the nose can make a big difference, a fairly wide range of distance measurements to the heel can be conveniently used according to the average shooter.

One thing that does not change with this measure is the perceived recoil. A rifle with a small distance to the heel is said to have a kick “straight.”

The recoil is more in line with football, more directly on the shoulder with a kick straight and more comfortable for most shooters. Kicks with a large distance to the heel can provide a lot of pain to shoot, because hake recoils against her cheek. The Americans are a comfortable distance to the heel in a field that ranges from 2.25 to 3.0 inches, equal to 57 ÷ 76 mm.

The distance “DD” in the drawing is called “distance from the trigger” (trigger pull). It is a very important measure when considering the suitable adaptation of a football. It is defined as the distance from the center of the butt (butt) in the center of the trigger. Became also understandable that it is also a direct measure of the length of the stock of a rifle any.

Too great a distance away from the shooter holds the rifle, it tends to move the cheek forward and brings the football back in an attempt to compensate. Calcium also tend to get tangled in the clothes quickly when it wields the rifle.

A distance is too short inconvenient for alignment, forcing the shooter to keep his face back, away from the breech, to maintain correct alignment. A distance too short will also result to send the thumb of the shooter to hit him on the nose under the effect of recoil.

An average shooter can be considered a remote trigger from 13 to 14 inches, approximately 33 to 35.5 cm. This really depends on how high the shooter, and how long are his arms. Many rifles ancients had a short distance, about 12 inches, but most modern shooters is a comfortable distance of 13:25 ÷ 13.5 inches (33.5 ÷ 34.2 cm).

Bob Spencer & Claudio Leonetti

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

Effebi, Black Diamond, hunting, shooting, sporting, shotgun


stock, forend, shotgun

Riccardo Ceccarelli, hunterIn the beginning there was Black Diamond cal. 12 The age over six decades ago, when Dr. Franco Beretta decided to propose to the market what has been a very popular superimposed from the carcass completely black, which inevitably gained the name of Black Diamond (Black Diamond). For more than 30 years away EFFEBI, now led by Fabio Beretta, dynamic founder’s son, will try again with other calibers, particularly smaller ones today appreciated, a 28 and a .410.

Contrary to the truth, the company has taken the lead in realizing in these two versions hunting calibers and two versions Sporting. Four configurations of weapon, produced exclusively in Italy to seal the Made in Italy concept that was once automatic weapons and Italian brand but today, in the era of globalization total, must be called with force. Rifles Brescia then, the land where the minds that think the weapon and the workers who carry them out are still and will continue to be among the most qualified in the production sector international firearms. The two versions of Black Diamond has been submitted to IWA 2013 world premiere and then re-proposed in Hunting, Fishing & Hunting and Nature of Spar Village 2013 for the pleasure of hunters and shooters Italian.

Effebi, Black Diamond, hunting, shooting, sporting, shotgun


Fabio Beretta company welcomed us in and made us sit in the vault for safekeeping of weapons, where were proudly displayed on the center table a .410 hunting version and a version Sporting 28. At first sight and without even touching them with his hands in his pockets strictly, there is one thing that strikes you. The all-black glossy frame and all metal parts which harmonizes well with the brown veined woods. It is a vision not too frequent, since most of the weapons that the staff of acquires for testing has silvery color and is often equipped with more or less elaborate carvings. But it is also a vision that meets the esthete and that from the outset gives the rifle that sense of slenderness and elegance, and you would not appreciate it. Yes, because the aesthetics, it is now well established, it is an essential factor of the elements of choice for ancient Italian that, if you purchase a gun from domestic production, the beauty is not research, demands.

Effebi, Black Diamond, hunting, shooting, sporting, shotgun

The receiver of this superimposed EFFEBI is dedicated to the 28 gauge and built in 18NiCrMo5 from forged steel; is hardened and browned in a very elegant glossy black; laterally are present nappette reinforcement of curvilinear design that over, to play a supporting contrast to the high pressure of the small gauges, give the group a sense of soft visual sophistication further accentuated by the two circular pads of the hinge barrel unit. Freed from the receiver stock, it was possible to see that the trigger mechanism is equipped with two strong coil springs, hinged at the rear, which directly activate the trigger mechanism.


On the dorsal part of the receiver which with its tail is inserted in stock, is placed the key opening of proper size and excellent effectiveness. Immediately behind houses the safety lever activated with snap back and forth and that encompasses the dial of dogs with left-right movement. This is easily activated by the movement of the thumb and also to contested weapon in sight.

Effebi, Black Diamond, hunting, shooting, sporting, shotgun

Trigger guard and protection, which are also strictly in black shiny uniform, have optimum size and outstanding ergonomics for those who are generous with his fingers. The click of the trigger is sweet and the return in the same position elastic and soft. The lower part of nappetta right door engraved with the name Black Diamond, ser-engraved in a beautiful cursive font that raises even more the overall elegance of the weapon. The chest of the receiver shows the manufacturer’s logo with the classic words EFFEBI. The inside of the receiver back onto the base and sides of the pads of the hinge barrel unit and the typical mechanism of the weapon swinging.


The closure of the classic type is superimposed with gusset ventral which acts by blocking the crampons, system established efficacy and capable of maintaining contained the general dimensions of the receiver.

The barrels are clip-on engine block in which are housed the two ejectors on the top and side stands a significant “EFFEBI MADE IN ITALY”.

They are made of steel 35CrMo4 chrome and well browned. The upper barrel is topped by a large rib 8 mm in the Sporting and 6 mm in the hunt that begins with the first bridge at about 80 mm from the chamber. The bridges with gaps of about 70 mm elegantly blend with a new full at about 70 mm from the muzzle.

Various barrel lengths: 760 mm in the Sporting and choice of 670 or 710 mm in the hunt. The pipes are joined laterally in the hunting version with two ribs and filled in the Sporting version with ventilated ribs for greater need for effective cooling of a weapon that works in the platform. In the version of the viewfinder is the classic hunting spherical brass screwed to the rib. In the Sporting version has a linear cylindrical high visibility that contributes significantly to the aims of the plates taken.

 The barrels of both the Sporting version of the game that are equipped with 5 interchangeable choke tubes and wrench.


This forend walnut round profile is released from the gun with pump action acting on a simple button located on the terminal just below the bottom barrel. The round rod ensures an ergonomic grip thanks to the generous ribbing that goes down from the sides until the entire lower part, interrupted only in its central part by elegant diamond design, irrelevant to the effects of hand grip. On the contrary the forend, unique to the two versions, stock also visually represents us the differences between the disciplines of hunting and Sporting. In models hunting viewed the stock looks like an interesting and elegant synthesis of Belgian and English school, so sought in modern weapons.


Immediately after the receiver two wedges curved plates describing the start of the gun stock round-bottom according to the dictates of Belgium. The upper part of the calcium has a fillet curve at the beak hake not too accentuated, that well joins the tip of the thumb ensuring a firm grip. The knurling, which begins with a wide V immediately after the wedges dishes, interesting completely throughout the gun. Stock is applied in a butt nut, knurled in the spacing between the housings of the clamping screws to stock, moderately concave and clear and elegant British-inspired.

In version Sporting stock is more generous in size and equipped with gun more important, with a radius of curvature more accentuated the hunting version and base almost flat. The butt solid rubber is also ideal for long shooting sessions and able to absorb a lot of energy of the recoil that in these gauges is never invasive. The advantage in both versions is right, but is available to order a chance to get a kick fitted with advantage for left handed shooters. For both versions, all wooden parts are finished with oil.


EFFEBI, in its continuous search for innovation and versatility for the benefit of the final consumer, has created a rifle insignia of the interchangeability of the barrels. The receiver dedicated 28 is able to accommodate the barrel group of .410, a factor that allows hunters and shooters to adopt, if they wish, in one of two guns by replacing the reeds, sold separately.


The weight in both gauges superimposed Black Diamond stood at 2.5 kg in the hunting version and the 2.7 kg in the Sporting version.


The shooting where was able to test the quality of Black Diamond was the TAV Canteen of Brescia and the test was conducted on a rainy day in late May and rigid. At the shooting test, our staff has been joined by Maurizio Bertolassi, a friend and colleague Fabio Beretta testimony that friendships can overcome even the “commercial rivalry”, becoming also a moment of constructive professional growth for manufacturers. at the Canteen
We tested the 28 gauge in Sporting configuration that immediately stood out for its ease of shouldering facilitated by the forms and the weight of the weapon which stood at 2.7 Kg.’s excellent balance of the gun, already empirically verified even when the .410, has led to the explosion of the proper shots without detecting trends fledging or vice versa difficulties raised. The excellent ammunition F28 Fiocchi 24 gr.

Lead used in the test made it possible to fully enjoy the effectiveness of the weapon and, after the first shots of togetherness in which Maurizio Bertolassi he just humiliated, we have gained the right confidence with the weapon and hit a number of targets.

Riccardo Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor