All posts by huntingrifle

Express. rifle, hunting, african



Stock, forend, old shotgun

RiccardoThe term was coined by express gunsmiths English 800 who first wrestled in the realization of this weapon rifled giving an interpretation that included the two rods side by side and, therefore, starting from the structure of the typical shotgun. At the time EXPRESS was the nickname that was given to the trains, just to signify the speed with which ensured the move as an alternative to other means of locomotion of the time. The weapon Express therefore was synonymous with speed meaning by this that the projectile launched on the target and this name was coined by the great James Purdey.

Although, express the classic pipe juxtaposed the modern reinterpretation consider them. also over barrels. But here we will not talk to express modern, this article is dedicated to the myths of the past and their guns.

two barrel, express, rifle, hunting

The study and the realization of the express port names of absolute fame, Holland & Holland, Rigby, Westley Richards, and their interpretations were the landmarks of gun making era.


Like all hunting weapons, also express arose from a specific need, given to British gunsmiths from the market of high-end of the nobles and the new rich. The British Empire embraced the most remote places of the world and the game had them present very different characteristics from that of the British Isles. Animals of great size and extremely dangerous, often especially resistant epidermis, the hunting of which frequently made ​​in the bush or among the tall grasses of the savannah, it was done a few tens of meters with the need to have weapons of easy maneuverability and power d ‘stop decisive. Thus was born the need to design the rifled gun barrel, also different from those that turned in central Europe, where the ballistics had the prerogative of the one final blow and long distance shots.

The colonial territories and their hunts had other prerogatives: the targets were often hidden from view by the dense vegetation of the hunters and the consequence was that they had to bring a lot. A short distance the shot was easy in aiming guns powerful but needed to stop on the spot the wild that if only wounded was able to load and kill the hunter. Hence the need to double the shot, both in a very short time (a rotating sliding shutter would be difficult to manage in the heat of the moment), and with the absolute certainty of not having paper jams, manageable factor absolute only with two barrels mechanisms firing separated.

two barrel, express, rifle, hunting

From these requirements came the family of the express, which just for the pursuit of absolute perfection from the outset were placed on high market prices, which are accessible only to a narrow circle of the market or for professional hunters, who made it their business tool.


Being double-barreled weapons, the first problem for the manufacturer so was the setting for obtaining good pink and this was the task of a precise category of the British workers master regulator barrel.” The adjustments of arms was made ​​directly in the field, where these specialists accedevano with arms in white carrying on sprint temporary spacers.

Here we did a series of tests carried out generally on the 100 yards (91.44 meters) until you reach the desired coupling.

In parallel with the rear sight is regulated intermediate and the viewfinder until the pink of ten shots were not going to both barrels within a radius of 20 cm, although the best calibrations carried the weapons to get pinkish diameter of ten centimeters.

These values ​​are unacceptable in the modern sense of ballistics but absolutely valid for an Express and the hunts for which they were intended.


two barrel, express, rifle, huntingAnother prerogative of the Express was the caliber always big and powerful that foresaw the necessity of having weapons always been particularly robust. These have had pistols both type Anson that type Holland & Holland, the latter very often removable, given that the hunter would be found in areas devoid of dealers for maintenance.


Recalling that the historians were designed to express wild and so are always challenging especially important as a dimension:

375 Holland & Holland Magnum – produced by the house that bears the name since 1912 became a popular caliber and still we find it chambered in both carbines express that in a rotating shutter sliding. It was used both on the African wild Indian, especially for cats, while it was considered caliber not too sure for the pachyderms.

450/3 and ¼ “N.E. – Marked on the cartridge introduced in 1898 by the famous neo-John Rigby. He was for many years the ammunition used in Africa because it is considered more reliable on any kind of wild. Then replaced by the legendary 416 Rigby, famous for its qualities of power and penetration, even on such wild buffalo and elephant.

.500 / 465 N.E. – Cartridge introduced at the beginning of the ‘Holland & Holland 900 from 450 in substitution of NE now that caliber military was no longer used for sporting purposes both in India and in the Sudan. He had a great success and was considered a good gauge for all wildlife.

.475 N.E. – Introduced from 1905 onwards and was used to express that in both rifles. Its use was preferred over dangerous animals in tender skin, but successfully used for short-distance shots on large pachyderms. The second generation introduced only a year after he had a shell of nearly 4 inches long and a half and it was suitable for the most challenging hunts in Africa.

.500 / 3 “N.E. – Was the first ammunition for gunpowder, then from the end of the 800 borrowed for powder without smoke. The ammunition was preferred by professional hunters who accompanied the wealthy in safari, for its effectiveness even against the most difficult game.

.577 / 3 “N.E. – Introduced from 1880 as a black powder cartridge was equipped with a long bushing 2 “and ¾. Then it was loaded with smokeless powders with the cartridge case led to 3 “. His reputation was the main ones being the cartridge to be certain that elephants preferred to NE 600 due to its greater penetration.

.600 N.E. – High power ammunition introduced by Jeffery in 1903 Produced by house until 1962 has recently been revived by some manufacturers to express. Its power was considered too exuberant for elephants.

 The answers to the ammunition English

9,3x74R – German response to the British barracks was more than that in express rifles in sliding and rotating shutter in combination. It could be conveniently used both in hunting large animals on African Americans and Europeans such as grizzly bear, moose, etc..

458 W.M. – Much more modern calibers English was introduced since 1956 and also had the versatility to be used both in express that in rifles. Cartridge is very powerful even for the most challenging wild.



carbine, rifles, hunting, rifled


stock, forend, shotgun

RiccardoThe ribbed single barrel folding is intended for those who practice strenuous hunts ungulates, whether in the mountains or to look up the hill through the woods and clearings. Became weapon solid, practical and light, leaving only the task of the hunter to aim well without shortness of breath because they never tired. Kipplauf is the weapon by high specialization, designed and developed for the needs montane and alpine Europe workhorse of many historic and successful producers in Germany and Austria.

But it has now crossed borders and is produced with success in Italy.
EFFEBI has been able to reinterpret it, imposing his practical sense and succeeding, through superb accomplishments, to broaden the use of logic and wild which can be addressed. And ‘the case of the Terminator, produced by EFFEBI Concesio (ITALY), and with whom Fabio Beretta, owner and unparalleled creative mind, he wanted to give an answer to some of the specialties of the hunt ball, tackling the issues of realization of the’ weapon from the point of view of the hunter. And let’s start right here, by the end user.

Rifle, fifled, Effebi, Terminator, firearm
Terminator is a single-shot rifle folding with the ability to be folded up to bring the barrel in position almost parallel to the calcium. Factor that facilitates the alpine hunter often used to carry the weapon in his backpack. And just to transport over long distances and challenging mountain EFFEBI the thought, creating a product that is a little over 3 kg (3,050 gr.) To which we add the weight of optics that the hunter will choose for his fighter. Lightness, therefore, ease of transport and they do get out of the Terminator by the exclusive use of mountain hunts and for hunting also propose to look at non-alpine ungulates (deer and fallow deer), governs booming throughout the national.
Rifle, carbine, rifled, hunting, Effebi TerminatorThinking about the latter and the real risk that a weapon of high aesthetic refinement may suffer scratches on the wood in search in the woods, the EFFEBI has created a weapon to protect spartan no frills excessively and can distract the hunter. And in this spirit of versatility is achieved in various calibers.

The receiver, the heart of any weapon, is made from a single block of forged steel and cemented in HCD4 houses the trigger group. The opening of the weapon is achieved by adjusting the throttle opening located on the upper tail of the receiver. This action frees the ventral piece and allows the opening of the weapon el’armamento inserting the battery, automatically the security mechanism.

At the close of the weapon appears to be ready, armed with the trigger mechanism, but with the safety engaged automatically.

Rifle, carbine, rifled, hunting, Effebi TerminatorSo the shot is not allowed unless the action takes place voluntarily disengage the safety by sliding forward of the lever behind the throttle opening. The closure of the Terminator is guaranteed by a harpoon downloaded which is housed in the headquarters of the plans of the receiver through the dowel reinforcement created entirely from forged early.

The rotation of the barrel on the receiver is guaranteed by chromium molybdenum steel pin UM10 securely fastened.
The battery has no steckher and the gun has a trigger which 1.200 gr factory calibrated. The barrel is made with UM8 process rotomartellatura cold GFM machines. The barrel has a conical profile and is lapped internally before proceeding to the implementation of the lining in order to obtain both the crest that the bottom row of transparencies so as to make more fluid the path of the ball. The rod is inserted plug in the engine block and then welded silver alloy. The Terminator series is equipped with weaver base for the mounting of optics. It ‘also equipped with rear sight adjustable for those unwilling to use optics.
The EFFEBI upon request will provide the hunter demanding a system of rings slide and quick-release steel products from Contessa that can be mounted on the rifle with four simple screws.
Football and boom are in Italian walnut oil finished. The stock has dorsal curvature and supports-cheek style made in Central Europe, which will facilitate the operation correctly targeted. The rod has a rectangular profile and tend to his front has a slight duck bill. Its bottom center houses the deep milling required acceptance of the bridge’s protective trigger. Both football auction have serrations of excellent workmanship made by laser.

Rifle, carbine, rifled, hunting, Effebi Terminator
The EFFEBI for the test has made available a Terminator in 6,5x57R caliber. As the gun-shot and then set to pull out of sequence, the shots were not fired in succession, but only to the cooling of the barrel after the previous stroke. Procedure a bit ‘long in time but more comparable with the shooting.

The test shots were made at 100 meters with ammunition with balls 126, 130, 120 grains. The shot pattern wider than the canonical 100 meters was 25 mm while the closer to 21 mm. The felt recoil was pleasantly reduced despite the rifle used had a weight of only 3,050 grams.

The weight, the ability to replicate completely the weapon to the long marches of approach to the target, the recoil particularly low and the price, that in setting used does not exceed 1,400 euros including VAT, make the Terminator of EFFEBI an important ally hunter’s ball, which will certainly take into consideration when making your purchase.


Manufacturer:  EFFEBI SRL, Via Borsellino 43, 25062 Concesio (Bs)

website:       email:

Model: Terminator

Folding Type: Single barrel shotgun – Kipplauf

Gauges available: 5,6×50 RM, 5,6×52 R, 243 Win, 6,5×57 R, 7×64, 7.65 R, 308 Win, 45-70 Gov.

Closing: a sliding block on crampons with reinforced rocker

Percussion: system in dog inside

Extractor: type manual

Rear: sights come standard with weaver base

Barrel: length 650 mm

Diameter at the muzzle: 14 mm

Pitch of rifling: depending on the rating table CIP

Taking: direct ceramic with a weight of 1,200 grams

Total length of the weapon: 990 mm 38  31/32 in (990 mm)

Weight: about 3,050

Finishing: metal parts finished in black, wood oil finished

List Price: 1.400 Euro ($ 1,874.32)

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

Rifle, weapons, old ordinance


shothunt, ear protection

The author of these notes, not Terni, believes that in order to better appreciate the effort that since 1993, the association is doing to see built and opened to the public the Museum of Arms, we should put the same museum in the context of the story is Factory d’Armi that the former Army of the city of Terni, if such factory was built. This is a short documentary and photographic chronicle of what has been said. I thank the members Sandro Patumi, Giovanni Piana and Gianluca Albonetti for the photographic contribution offered to the Association.

Terni of Italy, Armi's factory, weapons

 FROM 1875 TO 1919

Shortly after Unification of Italy (1862), there was talk of setting up a national armory a Terni, Terni in what was considered a strategic city for its location at the center of Italy and the richness of the waters that surrounded it: the proposal was opposed by the nearby Papal State and postponed indefinitely. The proposal was repeated and, in 1869, dr. Peter Masters, Director of Statistics at the Ministry of Industry and Commerce wrote on an “Italian Economy” …

In 1872 the Marquis Luigi Campofregoso, executor of the studies and the installation of the new plant, in his writing – The extraordinary importance of military and industrial Val Terni – concluded: “… I highly recommend this location ternana the attention of the Minister of War, General Commission for the defense of the State, the big capitalists and enterprising of all men. ” On March 19, 1874 issued the Royal Decree authorizing the expenditure for the construction of a factory in Terni d’Armi. Became to keep in mind that there was already one in Terni steelworks called “La Ferriera” and that, almost simultaneously with the proposed construction of the factory d’Armi, the Navy proposed and obtained the institution, always at Terni, a steel mill for the production of steel, construction breastplates and blanks cannon opened by King Umberto I ° in July of 1887.

The factory occupied lots granted free of charge to the State by the city of Terni, to the east of the city, on the road that leads to the Nera Valley and along the avenue entitled subsequently to Benedetto Brin. The factory was opened in 1880 and consisted of a main building and laboratories generally constructed to the building; was created a shooting range of 200 meters for the testing of weapons.

The energy was driving more than 1000 horses that came from the turbines to the main shafts of all the plants and that, longitudinally through the laboratories, the distributed sub-trees and their references. The workers came in large part from Turin, Brescia and Torre Annunziata and began to work on the Vetterli rifle mod. 1870 at a rate of 25 rifles per hour. In 1891, it was designed rifle mod. 91 cal. 6.5: the Director of the Commission were part of the Factory of Turin d’Armi col. Alessandro Olioli – Fasola, Captain Giuseppe Vitali and foreman Salvatore Carcano. The construction of the new rifle was entrusted to the Factory d’Armi of Terni.

In March of 1918 the workers were 7,172, of which over 3,000 women with two shifts of 12 hours.

FROM 1919 TO 1946

Between 1919 and 1921, due to lack of orders, the activity of the plant decreased to the limit of paralysis which was overcome by the restoration of parts d’arma and with various studies and transformation that allowed the full recovery of the plant, and between 1935 and 1940, the machinery was almost entirely renovated. In Piazza Cornelius Tacitus, in 1935, instead of the war memorial moved the entrance to the public gardens, was built the fountain “pen and ink” as it is now dubbed.

Armi's factory, Weapons

By the architects Ridolfi and Bean, the fountain features three distinct phases. In the first the water comes to the edge of the basin in the form of veil to flow over the surface decorated by the artist Cagli with the signs of the zodiac; Water in the second precipitates in a further bath to become energy represented, the third phase, by a very high metal needle covered with stainless steel. The authors of the project say the fountain “It stands in the same night as the symbol and essence of Terni: Industrial and dynamic.” On August 11, 1943, in one of the 108 bombing suffered by Terni during the war, the factory d’Armi lost 34 people including the Director General Antonio Passarelli and, in September, the Germans moved to the North about 3,000 machine tools. Later the plant was occupied by the Allies that left him in 1946 AD FROM 1946


Thanks to the skill of the workers who returned the precious material (industrial diamonds) hidden at your own risk, who tracked down many machine tools and “reconstructed memory” those lost, the plant resumed its activities dealing with the repair and conservation of Italian and foreign weapons, of mechanical parts and fittings for study and research. In 1978, the Factory d’Armi (FAET) has changed its name to the Military Armaments Light Plant of Terni (Smalt) and, from 2000 Polo Equipment Maintenance Light (PMAL) that, with modern CNC machine tools and systems computerized surface treatments of all kinds, on par with the national industries also providing the “logistical support” our troops abroad. On May 2, 1875, His Excellency Mr General Ricotti, War Minister laid the foundation stone of the factory d’Armi of Terni, saying among other things in his inaugural address: “Gentlemen, the nationality of Terni wanted to honor the mandate to place the first stone of the factory d’Armi that here, for the vote of Parliament and determination of the King, must be implanted. … In short, there will arise a great plant in the country that will work and honest gain a considerable number of workers and therefore no small advantage to the city, and, provided of the most perfect machines ed’ogni means more acconcio, will, I hope, readily compete hill d’armi most renowned factories abroad, both in quantity as in quality of products. … With this belief, in the name of His Majesty the King d’Itala Vittorio Emanuele II I place the first stone of the factory d’Armi of Terni. “” … With l’Augurio that the city of Terni, the Polo Equipment Maintenance Light, the association “Arms Museum – City of Terni “and the Arms Museum – town of Terni can always coexist and represent a piece of history of the cities of Italy …”

The President Brig. Gen. (res)

Guido Pesce

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

Springfield 1903, rifle, military, ex ordinance


shothunt, ear protection


Dear friends and readers, we continue today in our roundup of articles that leads us to become better know the rifles that have made the history of many battles and wars, in more or less distant times, and who have contributed in a decisive way to give precedence to some armies and peoples against others.

These rifles which, while being equipped, with their strengths and weaknesses, of an inferior technology compared to the latest generation of rifles, bought, over the years, an increasing appeal because they have been the protagonists of historical periods. Today we speak about the Springfield 1903, starting with the steps that led to its design and manufacture, and to do this, we must go back to the year 1898 In that year the United States army was engaged in the “Spanish-American” war and had the Krag-Jorgensen rifle as weapon ordinance, with 30-40 caliber and ammunition produced by the same house, supplied since 1892.

 Springfiled 1903, rifle, military, ex ordinance

The US army, however, was in serious trouble, facing an opponent with a “Mauser” of Spanish production, designed and built in 1893, that had two key advantages over the Krag-Jorgensen rifle: best ballistic characteristics in terms of accuracy on the useful shot and a greater loading speed of the weapon, a feature that allowed to have a much greater volume of fire.

The US military leaders wanted to run for cover by commissioning to Springfield a weapon that had similar characteristics and also better than the Mauser. Later it was learned that the same military leaders were able to put pressure against the Mauser to get information and projects, some of which will then be transferred in Springfield with a “royalties” paid to Mauser.


The Springfield completed in 1902 the design of the rifle and began the production on an industrial scale for the army in 1903, the same year from which it takes its name. In the same year the agreement was signed in which this rifle becomes weapon ordinance for the US army. Initially, however, there are doubts at the military top, because it is believed that this weapon present some defects, such as a too fragile attack for the bayonet and ammunition that is ill-suited to the rifle and with rounding to its vertex that, slowing down the speed during the trajectory, reduces the performance and, therefore, the degree of injury to the opponent.

Th President Theodore Roosevelt himself, previously senior officer of the Army USA, orders at Springfield the return of the models in use in 1905 to replace with a bayonet attack more effective. Almost at the same time, the Germans are experiencing a new bullet model called “Spitzer”, which means “sharp”: it presents cutting-edge ballistic characteristics for “stability” during the trajectory and greater speed of exiting from the barrel of the weapon, both elements that allow a ‘high penetration capacity” and, therefore, great efficiency from the point of view of war.

Springfield 1903, rifle, military, ex ordinance

The U.S. run for cover again and succeed in designing a ammunition, called 30-06, which has almost the same features as the German one, but in 1906 they are forced once again to retract the Springfield rifles to replace the barrel and re-calibration of the sights. The new ammunition has ballistic characteristics different from that used previously and the outbreak of the powders generates departure at greater velocity of the bullet, creating inside the barrel much higher pressures that become excessive for those supplied up to that moment.

In fact you get to the First World War, with the army US that is not yet equipped with Springfield rifles sufficient for all the soldiers, as a result of these continuous improvements of the initial project. Then is intensified the production of the same model that, between 1915 and 1918, leads to build other 265,000 rifles, in addition to the other 850,000 which, at the end of required mechanical changes, were given back to the army. A designer named John D. Petersen designs a specimen of Springfield that has a system reset similar to a prototype of semi-automatic, but since this requires the modification of the “receiver” with new rifles reduction for the army, it remains only a prototype.

During this period, and for all the time in which this rifle remained as ordinance weapon of the army of the United States, were designed and built several prototypes of Springfield1903 with different characteristics which, however, being prototypes, were never produced in large scale but in very limited series.

The other models were:

- Rifle M1903 Mark1, already mentioned above, with the breech and, especially, stop tooth modified that allow semi-automatic operation;

- M1903A1 rifle fitted with checkered pistol stock , trigger and recoil pad;

- M1903A rifle that has the same characteristics as those described above, but is made ​​with a lighter overall structure;

- M1903A4 rifle that is the version of “sniper” with pistol grip and possibility of application of optical magnification to 2.5, most available on the market compared to previous models, in the estimated number of 25,000 units.

Today the “demilitarized” weapon is widely used for the “shot in polygon” because it is very accurate, especially the A3 model with four-barrel grooves. Because of the limited availability of Springfield on the market, especially in later versions, built only in the prototype stage, the purchase for sport and for collecting involves a very high price.

But is also true that for the pure collector this is a rare “gem” for its collection, symbolizing a “piece of history” in the early decades of the last century.

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

Zeiss, Victori HT 54, binocular, Sport optics


stock, forend, shotgun

RiccardoWhat optics is probably among the areas of production in the service of the hunter, the most demanding in terms of massive investments required to always provide something more in terms of performance. And this is only permitted giants are able to commit substantial resources to research, to get a step up in performance. Sometimes they are small steps, sometimes leaps important as they get older surely what the market already offers. The latter is established habit of Zeiss that always, when he proposes something new, it does clearly separating performance in what is already a lively market offers.

Only recently - in 2012 - Zeiss binoculars had placed on the market with excellent performance in versions 8 x 42 and 10 x 42 and this had collected the favor of the fans for his extraordinary ability to transmit 95% of light and over, thanks to a massive effort in research on the glasses made ​​HT from Schott sister.


But Zeiss wanted to go further this year and was the star of a major new product in the field of binoculars that has placed it at the pinnacle of excellence: the Victory HT 54.

But as it has come to design a new pair of binoculars at the top of the class?

As usual Zeiss is playing in his quest by the customer, or by the hunter and its needs. Hunter needs for his twilight observation of extreme brightness, lightness, because overloaded with equipment hunting along rough terrain, resistance, because his journey is fraught with difficulties and efficiency in all weather conditions.

Zeiss, starting with these powers, has taken on the burden of design excellence for the modern hunter.

The base material of the structure has been the most important choice and has fallen on the magnesium, which although challenging in processing, allows to obtain considerable advantages. These are the absolute weight (1,035 grams and 1,050 grams in 8 x 54 in 10 x 54), but the magnesium, for its characteristic molecular puts an extra advantage in the hands of the hunter more distracted. In case of collisions is much easier to bring it back into service, to the original form; this than aluminum and as they say in the hunting is metal with the most memory.”

The design study of the forms has also allowed us to forge a bridge structure with a very protective of the ring (Double-Link-Bridge), putting more sheltered from shocks than many products on the market.

But because, fair question, research performance has not gone on a 56 mm?

The reduction in weight was a prerogative but there is much more, this is all the extraordinary skill and ability to research Zeiss enters its productions. The company working on the biometric parameters of the human eye has put its focus on the cognitive abilities of the same in the various age groups, noting with analytical data irrefutable, that after 30 years, the elastic capacity of the pupil are already down so that a 54 mm is already greater than the possible capacity of the dilated pupil. He therefore deemed it unnecessary to use a 56 mm that could not be exploited by the human eye and would have led to an increase against major weight around the neck of the hunter


Defined what Zeiss has focused on getting a result brightness of excellence with more than 95% of light transmission, the configuration of 54 mm lens allows you to take full advantage of the human eye, even in people with age in the .

Extraordinary result was obtained with the amplitude of the angular range of 130 m / km in 8 x 54 and up to 110 m / km for the 10 x 54 true excellence in the field of binocular observation.

But, as always, the German company has come out of the lab and thought to the hunting grounds and weather the difficulties that the hunter encounters. In addition to the T * multi-layer anti-reflective coating, it is especially important to the development of treatment LotuTec®, able to provide a vision always clear, when we pass from the sun to rain or snow.

Extraordinary, as tradition ergonomics, which brings Victory 54 at the top of maneuverability and ease of use.

Binoculars truly extraordinary when new Zeiss has outdone herself, which allow sharp observations and at great distances until late at night.

Riccardo Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor