Tag Archives: cartridges

hunting cartridges, hunters shotgun


stock, forend, shotgun

small hunting, shotgun, cartidges

Sometimes we hear from some hunters that their rifle is excellent with a type of powder or cartridge, but not with others, that it shoots well with big lead and not with small shots, with strong charges and not with light charges, or other way around. These hunters, getting excited with speeches barroom, talk about wonder weapons that produce shot patterns of the same extent in the short and long-distance shooting, or shot patterns with peripheral shots that are equal in ability to penetrate than the central ones.

Those statements hide many inaccuracies and erroneous assessments, with unlikely attempt to explain the phenomenon of variability of the performance of weapons and shot cartridges, a phenomenon observable by everyone engages the hunt or the skeet shooting. Someone, instead, blames the gun or the ammunition for all the misfires, or enhance the quality at every success, not caring so to deepen that the effectiveness of the shot not only depends on the characteristics of these instruments, but of many other variables.

hunting cartridges, hunters shotgun

It is known that the outcome of the shot depends not only on the characteristics of the gun or the cartridge, but also on the environmental and climatic conditions existing at the place of hunting. We can now speak of “temperament” of shotguns, because each weapon has its own temperament, manifested by the degree of compatibility with specific cartridges producing a high or a low value of velocity and pressure, or by the ability to produce pronounced or contained dispersions of shot. The weapons that have barrels of good length and small diameter can give acceptable ballistic results also firing cartridges with speed and pressure rather low, contrary to the weapons with barrels shorter and wider, which improves performance with powerful ammunition.

In the ammunition, on the pressure, on the speed and on the dispersion do not affect only the meteorological factors, but also the diameter of the cartridge chamber and of the bore, the extent of the choke and the angle of the barrel throat, the length and thickness of the tubes, and, minimally, the elasticity of the steel with which the barrels have been built. Therefore, the compatibility of weapons and ammunition is very important, although it can not compensate for an excessive sensitivity of the powder to the intense cold or to the environmental damp.

In fact, the ballistic performance of weapon and cartridge can not have “related” value respect to different “external” parameters to the system, because it also depends a lot on the atmospheric conditions existing in the place. Many hunters like to divide the cartridges in winter cartridges and summer cartridges.

A difference of atmospheric humidity of 10% can produce a variation of the initial velocity of lead of about 5 m/s with a single base powders, 3 m/s with a double base powders containing nitroglycerin. A difference of 1° C in the outside temperature, can cause a change in pressure in the barrel of about 3 bar. If this phenomenon occurs in a very short time, making unserviceable a cartridge that a few hours before killed a game, almost always the cause is found in the cartridge itself, and not in the atmospheric influence in so little time. In some areas of Italy, when there is an  atmospheric change, the cartridges may lose all or part of their efficacy, without the powder has had time to warn the external atmospheric mutation and to change its temperature inside of the cartridge case, or to absorb moisture through the plastic tube.

So when a good cartridge loses its effectiveness, it does it in a period of time long enough; if the phenomenon is realized in a short time, we can not speak of a good cartridge but of a munition that has some defect.

Teresa Renda

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor



stock, forend, shotgun


The shot with a firearm gives at the same a violent backward movement which, in the case of long gun resting on the shoulder of the shooter, submit him to a violent blow, surely annoying but that can also be harmful if it isn’t within certain limits . But what happens in reality?

The explosion of gunpowder tends to separate the projectile from the weapon; in other words, it latter pushes the shot on the one hand and the gun in the opposite direction.

Speaking of a purely physical phenomenon is also possible to say that both elements will move in the their direction for an area that is inversely proportional to their mass. So ironically, if the rifle had not stopped, in his retrograde movement, from the shoulder of the shooter it would have a movement of 100 times less than that of the projectile (evaluation performed on a standard data, which provides that the gun weights 100 times more than the charge that launches. Example: rifle weight 3,200 gr and weight launched shot 32 gr).

recoil shotgun, hunting, shooting

The recoil shotgun 

The sensation that produces the recoil on the shooter is obviously a function of the amount of kinetic energy produced in the explosion but also of the weight of the shotgun. It’s a well-known fact that firing the same ammunition by two shotguns different for weight the recoil felt is different and clearly lower for the gun that weights less.

The living force of the recoil is influenced by many factors: the weight of the shotgun, the weight of the shot charge (or projectile) including the material of wad and the burning rate of the powder. It is, however, independent of the value of the maximum pressure.

Shooters with a medium build resent a recoil of 4 kgm, factor that will make them lose their concentration worsening the quality of the shot.

Recoils with power about 4.5 kgm can be supported well by important build shooters as long as they engage hunts where they shoot rarely.

During hunts where the hunters tend to shoot with good frequency, such as those in bars, in the English hunts or to the small migratory, the recoil becomes an important factor that can affect the hunting results.

The speed of the recoil, a direct function of the burning rate of the gunpowder, is measured with a special instrument called “velocimeter”; in this the gun is placed on a horizontal axis capable of measuring, on a graduated rod, the weapon retrograde displacement during the shot. This instrument was used in the past, particularly in British plants for the production of ammunition.

Alessio Ceccarelli

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

small hunting, shotgun, cartidges


shothunt, ear protection

small hunting, shotgun, cartidgesWith the arrival of September, the small game is set up in our country, especially pheasants, hares and partridges. In this period, therefore, the Wild also has all the physical characteristics that allow it to be able to implement the necessary defenses to counteract the activity carried out by the Hunter.

It is also l’epoca you open hunting sedentary, which goes live on the day of the opening to the closing which usually coincides, at least for some species, or just before the end of the calendar year.

small hunting, shotgun, cartidges

Like any type of hunting that also has features for its permanent involving The use of firearms and calibrated in a certain way and with certain characteristics. Became this type of hunting for old hunters, maybe still in business, but are part of a generation or two ago, brings back the memories associated with many moments such as, for example, an opening very rich prey affected, or of strokes particularly difficult that led to excellent results with l’uccisione trophies, such as the hare that, in hunting sedentary, represents a trophy for a hunter always coveted.

What are the appropriate tools to perform effective town’s how much fun hunting resident? We seek here to make a classification, the most concise as possible, that surely little new give the expert hunter but that, on the contrary, may be useful for the novice.

A) The hunter must have a good shotgun 12 gauge or even 20, it is obvious that caliber will also vary depending on the types of cartridges to be used. The gun must be in a suitable condition at the level of cleanliness, especially the battery and / and rods and have all of its parts in perfect working order to avoid having a weapon ballistically invalid and, moreover, even dangerous to those who use it .

Do a thorough maintenance of a’arma at the end of the hunting season, with identical operation to be repeated just before the start of the next, always represent the best viaticum.

It is often recommended that a quick glance dall’armiere generally see immediately if there is any imperfection and, perhaps, the need to replace a few pieces.

Among the types of guns is not any one in particular is to be preferred, we say that the most popular are the shotguns, the automatic and superimposed all good weapons.

small hunting, shotgun, cartidges

B) The most suitable cartridge for hunting preferable to sedentary is loaded with a dose of lead medium-high; can happen, for example, which can break down a fairly volatile sized with a small caliber, but this will happen if you shoot a short distance behind the dog and l’alzata, however, always with a minimum of luck.

Generally we use the so-called “improperly” armored cartridges that have a base whose height varies from 3 to 4 cm. The name of this cartridge is improper because, in a future article, we will see the characteristics of the cartridge “Battleship” proper.

Generally, the cartridge case back with height 3 cm is always more than good, even if the eye of the hunter, see the bottom of the cartridge with a cartridge from 4-5 cm to always have the feeling of having in his hands a lot more cartridge performance.

C) The dots to be used must have a charge that goes from 34 to 38 g; if you shoot a wild tonnage of an adult pheasant, the numbering of the shot generally varies from 7.8 for shooting at short range when the wild part as a result of the lift of the dog, up to 6.5 or even the 4 especially if you shoot in the open countryside, at distances that are often at the limit of the range of the shot.

If you are in a forest, or place, however, impervious and low visibility, where the pheasant gets up in the short range of the shot, it is good to use as a substantial number 4 which may seem exaggerated, but it is often because must overcome the obstacles located in the woods and / or in the undergrowth, such as leaves, twigs, etc. ..

D) The powders used for hunting sedentary generally consist of slow-burning propellants but highly progressive. The pressure that the cartridges are loaded with these powders generate approximately 700 bar, loads perfectly acceptable for a normal rifle, although generating a recoil quite dry. Are commercially available cartridges are much more powerful though, in my opinion, over-sized for the sedentary, that is very extreme cartridges that can get inside the barrel to generate up to 1,000 bar.

These cartridges belong to the category of those with “high performance”. Manufacturers, in packs containing this type of cartridges, clearly show these high-performance and their consequences in terms of pressures they generate, not so much to ensure the hunter on the results that can be achieved, but to warn of the risk that may result The use of these cartridges.

It can happen that the hunter possesses a gun, maybe even old and which has not been approved over the 800/900 bar.

  In these cases it is best to stay away from the cartridges to “high performance” in order to avoid serious damage to their health.

E) The wads that are used can be either plastic container with vegetable fiber. As a general advice, but of course is at the discretion of the hunter, it is advisable to insert a cartridge into the barrel first with felt wad, then a second with a wad of plastic because, in the case of departure of the volatile as a result of the dog and close range, the first may be more effective; then if you need the so-called second shot, you will use the one with the wad of plastic that gives more boost to the shot and, therefore, a greater range of the shot.

If you are located in covered places for which the shot is fired always and only at distances, we recommend instead the use of only cartridge with felt wad, with l’ulteriore aid of canes little choked.

F) The cartridge at the top can be equipped with two different types of closure: closure “round edge” and “crimp closure. The first, which commercially available is greatly decreased, due to higher production costs, produces, when firing, pink larger, but slightly shorter, while the one on the crimp closure, which is the most popular, produces pinkish more focused, narrower and slightly longer with more opportunities to cool the prey if the shot is well directed and the same is invested in full by the same rosy.

In addition to the pheasant, there are two types of permanent hunting hunting extremely widespread; hunting hare and the partridges, grouse and partridges.

In hare hunting is necessary to have cartridges “substantial” and, here, using gauges cartridges ranging from 2 up to zero as the hare, being extremely fast and with the bones and muscles strong, to be gunned must necessarily be hit with cartridges with considerable power d’impatto, with a high caliber of lead. In fact, the hare can also be affected with cartridges “lighter” and, perhaps, with a greater number of dots which, although going to target, not fatally affect on prey.

In the hunt partridges, grouse and partridges instead the speech is completely different; In fact, it is advisable to use as small a number to the 8th of the first shot and a 7, that is a little more substantial if the first shot was not solver and considering that the prey is in the process of removal than the hunter.

In Italy it is a type of detectable partridge called “ciukar” that, besides having dimensions larger than the classical partridge, has the habit to get away to pawn for many meters and, therefore, when fly off at times is already almost to limit of the range of the shot. For this type of bird it is obvious return to more substantial numbers such as 4 or 5 at the most, as well as hitting an animal that can better resist the action of the shot is hit at a greater distance, then the charge of the cartridge must be substantial.

Last point to make concerns the climatic conditions in which it is carried out hunting sedentary. Generally occurs when the opening in September climates are hot and dry with an average humidity, going to l’autunno often we encounter in colder climates and wetter. The variant climate must be taken into consideration as regards both the heat and cold and is especially as regards of humidity.

In the case of medium to high humidity is essential to choose the cartridges where dust mixtures are not very hygroscopic, that is, that are not affected by moisture or high may limit performance. Everyone knows, of course, what to buy and the good advice of friends will do the rest to provide the bandolier of ammunition most suitable for each hunt.

Soon it will start a new season for all appassioniati to which the Staff of CacciaInFiera.it does a great good luck!

Teresa Renda

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor