Tag Archives: gun

shot, ball, shooting, hunting


shothunt, ear protection

Teresa Renda woman hunterThe damaging power of the shot is not only determined by its mass and velocity, but also it is a consequence of the relationship between the characteristics of the projectile and those of the game. The number of wounds inflicted determinants for the killing of the game, in turn, depends on other additional variables such as the distance of the shot, the size of the animal and its strenght, all those characteristics of the weapon that shoots and that interact on the dispersion of the shot pattern, and, then, on the string of the same (choke of the barrel, the number of shot of the charge, presence of the container in the cartridge, etc …).

In physics the energy is defined as the ability possessed by a body to produce work, and in the case of the shot the work is to be understood as to download the energy on the game, via the impact on its body. Indeed, the powder burning in the barrel of the gun, producing a large quantity of gaseous mass, produces a work which in part is dispersed as heat, and in part is exploited to launch a projectile.

ball, gun, hunting, shotgun, shooting. cinetic energy

In physics the energy that a shot has in his direction is defined “kinetic”, and it is amechanical energy of a body in motion (the shot), that is, the work done by the shot crossing the body of the game; in other terms it’s equivalent to the difference between impact energy and residual energy after the crossing.

Therefore, to calculate the kinetic energy of a bullet, at the various shooting distances, it is sufficient to know its mass (weight) and the residual velocity. In any case, the kinetic energy of the shot depends on several factors, such as speed and size of the shot, the physical size of the game and its natural defenses, such as thickness and strength of the skin, plumage, muscles, adipose or connective tissues …

The kinetic energy required for the killing increases, then, in relation to the mass, and the defenses of the animal. This amount of energy can be brought on the game both by a large shot at a low speed, either by a small and fast shot, but with different damaging capacity.

The first will have a lesion type trauma, the second will cause a deep wound. The kinetic energy that it is downloaded on the game is the sum of the energies of the individual shot that come on the target, the same amount of energy can therefore be carried by a few big shot, as many small shot.

To have success in shooting, we have to inflict more wounds, choosing the numbering of lead that ensures a sufficient residual energy and an appropriate density of shot pattern.

The general Journée, historical and scientist of ballistic, stated that the clean killing of game could be achieved with only 5 shot of adequate size. These have to be able both to harm the vital organs that to break the long bones. And to do that, they had to be equipped with adequate speed able to ensure the correct amount of energy.

Teresa Renda

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor

chocke, shooting, shotgun, hunting, barrel


shothunt, ear protection

woman hunterThe need of the hunter has always been to shoot farther and farther away, and the numerous and painful experiences made in the last century to reduce the dispersion of the shot and then to its compact size and greater penetration in the air, led to the invention of bottleneck of the barrels.
The bottleneck is the reduction of the inner diameter of the smooth barrel near the muzzle.

Its purpose, to reduce the dispersion of the shot favoring the concentration, in order to obtain a long-distance shot pattern more dense, smaller and more regular distribution. In 1866 William Rochester Pape of Newcastle, patented the “drilling choked,” obtained by perforating the entire barrel with a caliber of less diameter, then alesandola from the breech until it reaches the inner diameter of the caliber you want, stopping at about 9.84 in cm from the mouth. The two sections with different diameter were connected with a fitting conical profile.

chocke, shotgun, hunting, shooting

In St. Etienne and Liege made similar attempts to extend and improve the shot but it turned out almost always unsuccessful. Only by WW Greener was established in 1875 and with the changes to the drilling could have significant concentrations of pink and the ways he had experimented remained valid until today. The shape of the constriction of the barrel of a shotgun is affected by the thickness, type of steel, from the elasticity of the walls and by the reactions semi-elastic properties of the pellets.

Usually the bottleneck starts at about 1.97 in from the muzzle, ending with a long cylindrical section from 20 to 30 mm The connection between the two cylindrical portions of soul and mouth can have a different profile: truncated cone rectum and parabolic; but there have been in the history of ballistics shotgun other types of internal profiles of the barrel, with multiple bottlenecks in succession called “ring” with flared end sections and bottlenecks in rifling straight or parabolic. Fittings with short and sharp angles are more effective than long ones and elusive, but the connections shorter than 20 mm is experienced, they tend to create clusters of dots. Going beyond a certain limit of the slope of the fitting, decade regularity of distribution of the pattern.

The effect of the restriction of the pipes is a little reduced with the use of plastic materials in the cartridges, in particular the container of the shot, which reduces the value of the dispersions. In fact, firing ammunition of this type, we have discreetly throws more concentrated than with the classical wad.

hunting, choche, shooting, shotgunThe current tendency to reduce the weight of the shot charge in 12 gauge, contributes in no small importance to restore the functionality of the bottleneck, unless you want to give up a few yards of payload. If you reduce the number of shots fired, all the more necessary to maintain a sufficient density of pinkish medium and long distances, even if for this reason the difficulty of pull ups. Many bottlenecks by skeet are based to a shrinkage of 14/15 tenths followed by a flared profile, ie in the shape of an inverted cone in the last stretch of the barrel, resulting in a ‘minimal interference in limiting the divergence of the shot, the walls of the mouth. If the terminal cylindrical portion is very short, perhaps the office of weights even touches him with the peripheral dots, being contracted by the bottleneck.

If the stretch is long enough 0.98/1.18 in, acts on the peripheral dots returning them by shock inward of the swarm. If it was long, the wad of progress tend to reassemble the column of dots in the package, canceling the effect choke. The bottleneck is imported element for all gauges of shotguns smooth bore. Indeed, with the advent important in the market for hunting guns of small caliber (.410 and 28), whose amount of lead used is obviously limited, the bottleneck performs an essential function in maintaining the compact pinkish.

 Teresa Renda

Beretta, products, accessories, hunting, shooting, outdoor